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Press Kits

2000 Toyota MR2 Spyder Press Kit

  1. TOYOTA LAUNCHES NEW MR2
  2. A HI-TECH SPORTS CAR PRICED FOR THE PEOPLE
  3. NEW MR2 PUSHES SPORTS CAR BOUNDARIES
  4. MR2 HAS THE POWER TO RE-ENERGISE SPORTS AND COUPE SALES
  5. TOP GUN MR2 BORN ON AUSTRALIAN AIRFORCE NAPKIN
  6. SPORTIVO BODY KIT FOR MR2
  7. NEW MR2 PUTS GOLFERS WELL ON COURSE
  8. MR2 HAS NEW LOOK
  9. MR2 SPYDER IS A FIRST
  10. MR2 HAS STRONGEST BODY
  11. MR2 HAS AERODYNAMIC DESIGN
  12. MR2 HAS ALL-NEW ENGINE
  13. SPYDER HAS VVTI
  14. NEW MR2 HAS SEQUENTIAL CHANGE
  15. MR2 HAS IMPROVED SUSPENSION
  16. MR2 HAS ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC STEERING
  17. SPYDER SPORTS ADVANCED PASSIVE SAFETY
  18. MR2 HAS INCREASED ACTIVE SAFETY
  19. MR2 MAKES BETTER USE OF SPACE
  20. MR2 SPYDER HAS TRUE SPORTS INTERIOR
  21. STORAGE VARIETY FOR STYLISH SPYDER
  22. MR2 DESIGNED FOR LOW NVH
  23. TOYOTA'S NEW MR2 SPYDER IS A LOW-EMISSION VEHICLE
  24. SPECIFICATIONS

TOYOTA LAUNCHES NEW MR2


Toyota has launched an all-new mid-engined sports car.
The new MR2 Spyder convertible is the first Toyota designed from the outset as an open-top car.

It is the first Toyota with sequential-shift manual transmission.

MR2 Spyder has improved handling, performance, safety and economy compared with the superseded MR2 coupe.

It is 231 kilograms lighter than the previous model and has a larger footprint on the road.

The new MR2 has a power-to-weight ratio of 106kW/tonne.

It has an all-alloy 1.8 litre VVTi-equipped Twin Cam Multi-valve engine which delivers 103kW of power at 6400rpm and 170Nm of torque at 4400rpm.

The new engine is a matched to a five-speed manual transmission with sequential shift.

Gears can be shifted using either a short-throw gear lever or E-shift buttons on the steering wheel.

The clutch operation is automated, for greater ease of use.

The steering system is Toyota's unique electro-hydraulic power steering, for optimum response and minimum load on the engine.

Safety equipment includes dual SRS airbags, pretensioning seatbelts with force limiters and ABS anti-skid brakes as standard equipment.

The seats feature Toyota-developed WIL (whiplash injury lessening) design.

Interior features include 3-in-1 audio system with 6-CD in-dash multi-changer and four speakers.

The interior styling cues are retro/sports, with a three-dial instrument cluster and a free-rack system to mount the audio system.

MR2's steering wheel is a three-spoke sports design, with dimpled genuine leather covering for added grip.

Seven exterior colours are offered, complemented by three seat-trim colour combinations.

A fourth colour, tan leather accented seat trim, will be available as a factory option from September production.

The new MR2 has an easy to use manual convertible top.

The soft top has a glass rear window, to optimise rear vision and resist UV degradation.

The driver can open or close the convertible top in less than 60 seconds.


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A HI-TECH SPORTS CAR PRICED FOR THE PEOPLE


Toyota's new MR2 has been built in the tradition of utilitarian sports cars - but unlike the majority of its antecedents it provides high technology solutions.
The use of an infinitely variable valve timing engine - and sequential manual transmission - are at the leading edge of the under-$50,000 category.

In the past half century, low cost sports cars have invariably relied on low-cost technology.

MR2 breaks that nexus, providing high technology enjoyment in a comparatively low cost sports car.

The MGTC, built as the people's sports car in the late 1940s, was forced to utilise a modified low compression Morris sedan car engine so that it was capable of accepting the poor quality low octane fuel of the immediate post war era.

But the TC like the MR2 was built for ~exuberant summer days when you took down the hood and felt the wind in your face~, as Helmut Lehbrink wrote in his book World Sports Cars.

The TC pioneered the concept of the people's sports car.

It was not necessarily an entry level vehicle because it still cost substantially more than the equivalent sedan. And the step up to the next level of sports car was too great to be automatically sequential.

Rather, it was intended to provide sports motoring at an affordable price.

The 1950s and 1960s were arguably the golden decades of sports car availability.

There was a three-tiered level of sports car supply.

At the affordable level was the Austin Healey Sprite and Triumph Spitfire.

A middle category made available the MGA, Austin Healey 100 and 3000 series and Triumph TR2-6 series, as well as the first Alfa Romeo Spiders.

And at the top end came the exotics - XK Jaguars culminating in the classic E-type launched in 1962, and the first Ferraris.

Today, the same three tiers of sports car have again become available.

At the affordable level are MR2 and its immediate competitors - Mazda MX5 and MGF.

In the middle level are vehicles in the range of $50,000 to $130,000 - encompassing Honda S2000, Audi TT, Porsche Boxster, BMW Z3 and Mercedes-Benz SLK.

And at the top end are the exotics - Porsche 911, Ferrari F360 and a raft of others.

In the Golden Era the three tiers were also defined by their power to weight ratio.

The nimble affordable vehicles relied on low mass to achieve power to weight ratios in the range of 48kW/tonne (Austin Healey Sprite) up to 65kW/tonne (Spitfire).

The middle division hovered in the 70-80kW/tonne range (MGB 76kW/tonne).

It was only the exotics that exceeded 100kW/tonne. But invariably they paid the dual penalty of heavy weight and large, comparatively unresponsive engines. Compared to some of the smaller cars, they were in many respects less enjoyable to drive.

Today the best of the affordable sports cars break the 100kW/tonne barrier.

Toyota MR2 is the best of its category with a power to weight ratio of 102kW/tonne.

Its acceleration 0-100km/h is up to half that of the first and second tier sports cars of the Golden Era.

One of the biggest breakthroughs for sports car drivers now comes in the form of user-friendly utilitarianism.

MR2's soft top is a one-hand, two-clip construction and its electric side windows fit perfectly with the hood.

With the hood down and the windows up, it's possible to conduct a normal conversation inside the cockpit even at high speed.

And a small spoiler lip behind the seats provides a perfect aerodynamic foil so that occupants' hair is never blown forward.

The spoiler can be folded down to allow a return to sports-car sensations of the Golden Era.



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NEW MR2 PUSHES SPORTS CAR BOUNDARIES


Sports car sales this summer are likely to boom more than 25 percent, sparked by the release of Toyota's new MR2.
The lightweight, high performance MR2 soft top is set to become a key competitor in the under $50,000 fun sports car market.

It is Toyota's first purpose-built soft top.

The new Toyota is lighter than the MR2 it replaces and it handles even better, yet it is less expensive.

It is also set to increase its buyer appeal.

While previous MR2s sold largely to affluent under 30-year-olds, the new car is expected to open greater opportunities in older age groups as well.

Toyota expects to deliver more than 600 MR2s in their first full year of sale.

The MR2 explores new sports car parameters.

It is the only mass-produced sports car under $50,000 which weighs less than 1000kg.

And that gives it a power to weight ratio greater than its category rivals.

MR2's VVTi Twin Cam Multi-valve engine and its breakthrough five-speed sequential manual gearbox are both category exclusives.

And both add appreciably to driver enjoyment and satisfaction.

~The new MR2 is a pure sports car for the people - in the tradition of the great populist sports cars of other eras,~ Toyota senior executive vice-president John Conomos said.

~It makes true sports car performance available to a wide range of enthusiasts at a price which is not only affordable but attractive.~

New MR2 comes to market at $44,990 - 6.1 percent less expensive than the model it replaces and 21.6 percent beneath the previous premium model.

Its range of colours and trim choices highlight its appeal to a multiplicity of enthusiasts.

~Principally MR2 has been built to be fun,~ Mr Conomos said.

~It should put a smile on its driver's face every time he or she turns the key.

~Driving to work will enter a new dimension.~

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MR2 HAS THE POWER TO RE-ENERGISE SPORTS AND COUPE SALES


Toyota's MR2 Spyder has the potential to push sales in the sports and coupe segment over 10,000 for the first time in four years.
Toyota Celica is clear leader in the segment which on annualised figures is currently likely to hit 9,700 by year's end.

Celica accounts for a quarter of all deliveries in the segment.

The impetus of new MR2 will cause an upsurge of general activity.

The sports and coupe segment peaked in 1997 at 12,855 sales.

It reduced last year to 8732, buoyed only by the release at year's end of the new Celica, which took segment leadership with 21.1 percent of all deliveries.

Soft top sports cars and drophead sedans this year make up 16.6 percent of sales in the segment.

True soft top sports cars comprise approximately 13 percent of the segment.

It is possible MR2 could capture a third of the true soft top sports car segment.

~A hot fine summer will make all the difference,~ Toyota senior executive vice-president John Conomos said.

~MR2 is designed to be an all season weather-proof car, but certainly its peak enjoyment comes with the top down on a fine day.~

MR2 will be predominantly sold to private buyers in cities.

Some 74 percent of sports car buyers live in a capital city and another 17 percent live in a large city or town.

More than 30 percent of MR2 buyers will be women.

Sales of sports cars are currently split evenly between three age groups - 20+, 30+ and 40+.

However the previous MR2, a conceptual step well away from the new car, was bought largely by affluent men under 30.

The new MR2 is expected to have far broader appeal.

In fact, some 60 percent of orders are expected to come from the 30-49 year age group.

More than 57 percent of sports car buyers are married ,although 80 percent do not yet have children.

Some 70 percent of new MR2s are expected to be used by families as their second car.

Tellingly, 30 percent of MR2 buyers will have previously owned a sports car - either immediately in the past or some time ago.

~MR2 is going to be aspirational for owners of other sports cars,~ Mr Conomos said.

~Its dynamics, especially its sequential gearshift , provide a level of response and driver satisfaction beyond current expectation.

~MR2 is also the perfect tool with which other people can revisit the sports car market.

~Drivers who owned sports cars in their youth are not going to believe how good this is.~



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TOP GUN MR2 BORN ON AUSTRALIAN AIRFORCE NAPKIN


The former chief engineer of Toyota's sports car projects Tadashi Nakagawa penned the design for MR2 on a table napkin at the Tindall Airforce Base in the Northern Territory.
Mr Nakagawa was in Australia for the launch of the last Celica GT-Four Rallye, held on part of the route of the now infamous Cannonball Run.

At the end of a day's driving above 200km/h he revealed to media he privately owns a Ferrari 328 which he uses occasionally on the challenging mountain roads above Lake Hakone.

He then set out to reveal his concept for a perfect light sports car.

It would be lightweight, minimalist, and with a power to weight ratio above 100Kw/tonne.

It would be built to be highly responsive to driver input - and highly rewarding.

Although it would be mid-engined, it would contain no handling vices to catch the unwary.

Mr Nakagawa last year revealed in Australia his new Celica - powered by a lightweight Yamaha built engine.

The Celica makes 125Kw/tonne - the best naturally aspirated power to weight ratio in Toyota's four cylinder range.

He deliberately chose the 1.8 litre version of the Celica engine for MR2 as his concept of the perfect match between engine power and chassis dynamics.

Mr Nagakawa has now been appointed to the European Technical Centre in Brussels.

FOOTNOTE: Tadashi Nakagawa flew the RAAF's FA-18 simulator at Tindall Airforce base.

In a dogfight, he scored a perfect kill on a MIG29.

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SPORTIVO BODY KIT FOR MR2


Toyota has released a stylish body kit for MR2 Spyder, designed to emphasise the new model's sporting intent.
The Sportivo body kit has been fitted to the first 50 MR2 Spyders which are available for sale at launch.

The body kit, which is also available as a Toyota Genuine Accessory, consists of a front spoiler, side skirts, rear skirt, and rear wing.

The front spoiler and skirts are made of tough, durable and impact resistant polypropylene.

The rear wing is made from tough engineering plastic and includes an LED stoplight.

The Sportivo body kit was designed and developed concurrently with the MR2 Spyder by Toyota engineers in Japan.

The body kit's parts match inbuilt mounting points on the car to ensure a perfect fit.

It comes with a Toyota Genuine Accessories three year, 100,000 kilometre warranty when fitted at the time of new vehicle purchase.

The manager of Toyota's Conversions Accessories and Motorsport division (T-CAM) Peter Evans, believes the MR2 body kit will prove popular.

~Body kits for other Toyota models released previously by T-CAM have received a strong reception from buyers,~ said Mr Evans.

~The new MR2 Spyder is a car which lends itself readily to such accessorising.~

Toyota has released two other key accessories for its new sports car.

A removable hardtop has been designed to provide additional security, as well as protection from sun, wind and rain.

It can be fitted quickly using multiple built-in attachment points, and incorporates an electric connection for the built-in rear window demister.

The hardtop is available as either colour keyed or in black to blend tastefully with the car's styling.

Polycarbonate covers to protect the MR2 Spyder's headlights from stone chips, scratches and expensive damage are also available, as well as tailored carpet floor mats to protect the original upholstery.

A set of four custom-made mudflaps helps keep the vehicle clean in wet weather by reducing spray.



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NEW MR2 PUTS GOLFERS WELL ON COURSE


Toyota's new MR2 has been purpose-built for the new slimline range of self carry golf bags - and vice versa.
Both the MR2 and the new style high-tech golf bag have been in simultaneous development.

MR2's behind-seat luggage space neatly fits the new lightweight 20cm circumference bag.

The bag weighs less than 2kg - up to a sixfold saving on conventional bags - yet can carry a full set of competition clubs.

~We recommend owners choose graphite or titanium shafts to further reduce weight in the golf kit,~ Toyota's manager of product management Adrian Weimers said.

~The luggage compartment is purposely low in the car and almost exactly in the centre to maintain the best possible polar moment of inertia in cornering,~ Weimers said.

The MR2 offers more than 140 litres of discrete cargo area in four compartments.

The new slimline golf bags have taken the golfing world by storm.

They come with self-activating stands and a variety of straps for easy, ergonomic carrying.



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MR2 HAS NEW LOOK


Toyota's MR2 Spyder has an all-new appearance.
The vehicle retains the MR2 concept - mid-engine/rear drive and two seats.

However, the new model has been designed as a mainstream open-top sports car rather than a speciality vehicle.

The styling cowl-forward design positions the driver's eyes on the fore/after centreline of the car to provide good vision of all four corners. The wheels have been pushed out to the extremities of the vehicles (the wheel at each corner concept) to maximise road holding. MR2 Spyder's front styling has some retro elements, with large headlamps.

The graphic design of the bonnet and body profiles emphasise the vehicle's sports car heritage.

The grille is wide and low, with an aggressive air intake, to add to the sporty appeal.

MR2's unique wedge-shaped side view and generous door sections give a strikingly solid appearance.

The tight design of the doors and characteristic MR2 side air intakes create a more aerodynamic sporty profile.

MR2 Spyder has a black convertible roof for all models except leather trim pack which has a tan convertible roof, with a built-in tempered glass rear window with demister.

MR2's rear combination lamps follow the front styling.

The characteristic lines of the engine cover and built-in high-mount stoplamps accentuate the unique styling - emphasising width and the MR2's low centre of gravity.

MR2 Spyder has alloy wheels, with a front/rear wheel/tyre size differential - the hallmark of a true sports car.

The front wheels are 15x6.0JJ with 185/55 R15 - 81V tyres.

The rear wheels are 15x6.5JJ with 205/50 R15 - 85V tyres.

Australia-specification MR2 Spyder comes with either Bridgestone Potenza RE0140 or Yokohama Advan A043 performance tyres.

Seven exterior colours are offered: Glacier White, Cold Steel, Ebony, Cherry, Solar Yellow, Racing Green and Galaxy Blue.

These exterior colours can be matched with a choice of seat colours - depending on exterior colour choice.

The seat options are Black, Red and Yellow fabric, and (from September production) Tan leather.

The leather accented seat model has a tan vinyl soft-top roof.

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MR2 SPYDER IS A FIRST


The new MR2 Spyder is the first Toyota designed from the outset as an open-top sports car, with an easy-to-use manual convertible top.
The soft top has a glass rear window, to optimise rear vision and resist UV degradation.

The driver can open or close the convertible top in less than 60 seconds.

Two internal latches secure the convertible top.

These latches are located near the A-pillars.

Spyder's convertible top is designed to act as its own tonneau cover when the roof is lowered.

The roof is designed with only two folds - so there is no chance of dirt being brought inside the car when the roof is opened.

The roof also has rain channels to ensure rain water does not enter the vehicle.

Special features of the open-top MR2 include an air deflector, located just behind the seats - to reduce turbulence around the occupants' heads.

Security features have been designed to take account of the convertible design.

MR2 Spyder has an engine immobiliser, security alarm with panic mode and wireless door locks.

The bonnet opener is concealed in the lockable glovebox.

A combined engine hood opener and fuel lid opener valet lock is also provided.



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MR2 HAS STRONGEST BODY


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder has the strongest body in its immediate convertible class.
It has class-leading bending and torsional rigidity among its rival convertibles.

The strong body platform contributes to improved passive safety and handling, and lower NVH.

Toyota is an acknowledged world leader in body design.

The MR2 breaks new ground for Toyota as the corporation's first vehicle designed from the outset as an open-top sports car.

Toyota paid special attention to body rigidity and passive safety in the MR2 design.

It passes the European 40 percent offset deformable barrier test at much higher impact speeds than the regulations require Special design measures have been adopted to maximise frontal, side and rear impact protection - while achieving an overall weight saving of 231kg compared with the superseded model.

MR2 has comprehensive impact absorbing structures at the front, sides and rear - including twin impact protection beams in the doors and reinforcements to the rear upper members and rear side members.

The new MR2 body makes extensive use of high-tensile steel.

High-tensile steel sheet accounts for 50.7 percent of the weight of the body in white.

It is used for the front bonnet, engine hood and door skins, and for the full length of the chassis rails.

In addition, high-strength steel is used for rocker panels, pillars, firewall, main rear cross member, upper suspension supports, rear cross-brace and key sections of the underbody.

MR2 has increased section thickness for the main body channels and thicker materials, to achieve optimum rigidity.

The new MR2 has a comprehensive underbody structure and significantly larger section rocker panels, compared with superseded MR2.

The bottom of the front A pillar has been enlarged to increase rigidity with the rocker area. The pillar itself has been stiffened with a straight pipe to ensure rigidity.

A number of welded cross members and reinforcing braces have been included in the design, for maximum body rigidity.

These include:

* a spare-tyre compartment cross member that connects the front side members

* front-suspension member braces

* front suspension to lower cross member braces

* substantial welded cross members under the spare wheel cavity

* a reinforced multi-rod support for the top and tarpaulin support frame

* a front floor cross member and floor panel brace

* reinforced braces across the rear of the engine bay, under the floor and around the lower rear suspension pick-up points

* and a K-brace that connects the rear suspension towers.

MR2 Spyder's body is protected by Toyota's proven package of corrosion protection measures, including extensive use of anti-corrosion steels.

Nearly 90 percent of the body is pressed from corrosion resistant galvannealed steel.

Anti-corrosion steel is used in all areas except the interior parts.

The body durability package also includes application of wax, sealer and anti-chipping paint to vulnerable parts such as the bonnet, doors and rocker panels.



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MR2 HAS AERODYNAMIC DESIGN


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder sports car has a smooth, aerodynamic body.
Special attention has been paid to smoothing airflow around and under the vehicle, and to reducing in-cabin turbulence.

The underbody is virtually flat, with front fairing ~spats~ fitted to smooth airflow around the front tyres, reducing airflow resistance.

MR2's aerodynamic features also include special features to ensure efficient brake cooling.

The front portion of the fender liner has been shaped to direct air onto the brake rotors - for maximum brake cooling.

MR2 Spyder's cabin includes a manual-type air defector to reduce buffeting when the top is open - to increase comfort.

The air defector is made of transparent acrylic material to ensure good rear visibility.



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MR2 HAS ALL-NEW ENGINE


Toyota's new all-alloy MR2 Spyder engine has state-of-the-art production-engine features.
The intelligent Toyota system (VVTi) offers infinitely variable inlet timing across the engine revolution range.

Toyota has adopted leading-edge engine technology throughout the new MR2 engine, for maximum fuel efficiency, low emissions, light weight, low NVH and high performance.

MR2's new 1ZZ-FE engine uses similar technology to the 2ZZ-GE launched in last quarter 1999 in Celica.

Features of the new 1ZZ-FE engine include:
* a compact, externally ribbed all-alloy cylinder block. The alloy block delivers maximum thermal efficiency and minimum weight.
* thin cast iron liners are internally chill fitted inside the cyliner block
* passage holes in the crankshaft bearing area of the block, to reduce pumping losses within the engine and hence boost performance
* the water-pump swirl chamber and the inlet passage to the pump integrated into the block, to save weight, space and complexity
* a full ladder-type crankshaft bearing cap, to maximise rigidity and reliability, and reduce noise. The full-ladder bearing cap also improves the coupling to the transaxle
* the bearing cap has chill-fitted cast-iron inserts around the journal portions, to resist heat deformation
* the oil-filter bracket, air conditioner compressor bracket and rear oil-seal retainer are integrated into the bearing cap to reduce the number of parts
* serpentine belt drive to the auxiliary equipment, to reduce engine length, number of parts and weight (with automatic tensioner)
* a fully balanced crankshaft and thin, lightweight, high-strength connecting rods to reduce reciprocating weight and friction
* plastic region tightening big-end bolts, for optimum rigidity with low reciprocating weight

* an unsquare bore and stroke relationship to boost torque (79.0mm x 91.5mm)

Cylinder Head Design:
Toyota MR2 Spyder has an all-alloy Twin Cam Multi-valve cylinder head.

It is the only Toyota cylinder head in Australia to employ the latest technology laser-clad valve seats.

The valve seats are made by welding high-resistance material into the port, then machining a valve seat into the material.

The resulting valve seat can be made thinner than a conventional shrink-fit valve seat, for improved air flow and better cooling around the valve area.

The camshaft drive is by 8mm pitch roller chain, with a lubricating oil jet and auto tensioner.

The MR2 engine has long straight intake ports, to further boost engine breathing.

The inlet system is made of plastic, to reduce heat transfer from the engine to the inlet charge and hence increase volumetric efficiency.

The fuel injection nozzles are located in the inlet ports, to prevent wall wetting and fuel adhesion to the walls of the port, thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions.

MR2's compression ratio has been set at 10.0:1, for optimum combustion efficiency and power output across the revolution range.

The piston crowns have a tapered squish design, to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the chance of engine knock (pre-ignition).

The squish angle has been shaped obliquely along the wall surface of the combustion chamber, to improve airflow, promote swirl and speed flame travel.

Further features of the MR2 engine's top end are:
* sequential electronic fuel injection with 12 injector nozzles mounted in the inlet ports, for maximum fuel atomisation and reduced wall wetting
* an L-type hot-wire air flow meter for the EFI, for more accurate air-flow measurement and hence more accurate fuel/air mixing
* a dual-type (four-into-two) exhaust system with stainless steel headers, for maximum performance and durability, and minimum weight
* the dual exhaust system feeds into two fast warm-up three-way catalytic converters, to minimise exhaust emissions. It then feeds via a compact dual flexible pipe (to minimise NVH) to a third three-way catalytic converter and then to the muffler.
* a cross-flow type aluminium radiator for improved cooling, increased recyclability and reduced weight.

Additional fuel and emission saving technology includes computer engine management, individual Toyota Direct Ignition for each of the four cylinders and electronic spark advance with a knock control system.

Further serviceability improvements include Multiplex engine diagnostics (which can detect a malfunction and memorise the failed section).

Toyota MR2 also has a fuel cut-out device, which activates if the dual SRS airbag is deployed.



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SPYDER HAS VVTI


The new Toyota MR2 Spyder engine has the driveability enhancing feature of intelligent variable valve timing.
Intelligent variable valve timing gives MR2's 1ZZ-FE engine a combination of driveability, fuel efficiency, low emissions and high performance.

Toyota's VVTi system is more advanced than the binary systems in some German luxury vehicles and Japanese small cars.

VVTi is a flow-down from the Lexus luxury car program and the Prius hybrid vehicle.

MR2 has the latest-generation TMC-developed vane-type VVTi control, which is used on Prius, Lexus IS200, Echo and Celica.

Intelligent variable valve timing is being progressively introduced on Toyota passenger vehicles.

VVTi provides continual variations of the intake valve timing, to provide ideal valve timing (and hence ideal engine characteristics) for the full range of driving conditions.

Inlet camshaft timing is varied according to engine revolutions, throttle position, inlet camshaft angle, engine coolant temperature and intake air volume.

MR2's VVTi system can vary inlet camshaft timing (and hence valve overlap) over a range of 43 degrees, relative to crankshaft angle.

Maximum valve overlap for the MR2 engine is 50 degrees.

Variable Timing Activation:
Toyota MR2's VVTi is a computer controlled and oil-pressure activated push-push type system, using the engine oil.

The engine ECU can command the system to advance or retard the inlet camshaft timing, thereby providing for faster response.

The hardware is a camshaft timing oil control valve (mounted adjacent to the inlet camshaft gear wheel) and a VVTi controller mechanism built onto the inlet camshaft timing gear.

The camshaft timing oil control valve is a spool valve, controlled via a coil and plunger by the engine ECU.

It can signal ~advance~, ~hold~ or ~retard~.

The VVTi controller consists of a housing on the front of the timing wheel, driven from the timing chain, and a four-bladed vane coupled with the intake camshaft.

When the engine ECU requires a change in inlet timing, it signals the oil control valve to provide oil pressure to either the advance or retard side of the four vane chambers.

Inlet cam timing is set to the maximum retard position for engine start-up, operation at low engine temperature, idle and engine shut-down.

A locking pin in the controller locks the camshaft timing in the maximum retard position for engine start-up and immediately after start-up (until oil pressure is established) to prevent any knocking noise

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NEW MR2 HAS SEQUENTIAL CHANGE


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder sports car has a sequential gearchange.
Toyota has adopted the sequential-change manual transmission to provide a racing-car style quick-response shift coupled with low fuel consumption.

MR2's transmission can be shifted via a short-throw gear lever or E-shift buttons on the steering wheel.

If both the lever and the E-shift buttons are both used, the lever takes precedence.

The accelerator pedal and gear-shift lever are control-by-wire type.

The clutch operation is automated, for greater ease of use (there are only two pedals).

When the vehicle comes to a stop, the transmission automatically shifts to first gear, so the vehicle can move off smoothly when required.

The driver controls all other gear changes.

The vehicle can take off in 2nd gear if the driver wishes - to suit low-traction conditions, such as snow.

The five-speed transmission has ratios of: 1st, 3.166; 2nd, 1.904; 3rd, 1.392; 4th, 1.031; 5th, 0.815 and reverse, 3.250.

It is matched to a 4.312:1 final drive ratio.

MR2 has a helical-gear type torque-sensing differential as standard equipment.

The mechanical-type LSD operates on similar principles to a Torsen differential and is not subject to degradation over time.

Major Components:

Toyota MR2's sequential gear-change system has 10 key components.

These are:

* an intelligent electronic throttle control system (ETCS-I), for excellent throttle control in all operating ranges

* two separate but networked electronic control units for the engine and transmission

* a sequential transmission pump assembly, to supply hydraulic pressure for clutch operation and gear shifting

* a sequential transmission actuator assembly, to engage/disengage the clutch and shift gears

* shift lever switches to detect shift-lever movement and send signals to the transmission ECU

* a shift-lock solenoid to lock movement of the shift lever when the ignition switch is in the ACC or LOCK position, to prevent a mis-match of the lever position and gear position

* a stop-light switch, to detect brake operation

* a gear-position indicator, to indicate gear position and warn the driver if the shift position and gear position become mis-matched

* a transmission revolution sensor, to detect transmission input shaft speed (which the transmission ECU can compare to engine and road speed).

Normal Operation:

Starting the system - Toyota MR2's sequential transmission ECU begins operation as soon as the driver's door is opened (via a signal from the courtesy light switch).

The ECU signals the pump motor and hydraulic pump to begin operation.

When the hydraulic fluid for the control system is pressurised, the system assumes ~stand-by~ mode.

(If the system is not used within a prescribed length of time, the ECU turns the system OFF.)

Starting the engine - When the ignition switch is turned ON, the shift lock mechanism unlocks, enabling the driver to operate the shift lever.

The engine ECU will only permit engine start when the brake pedal is depressed and the shift lever is in the ~N~ range.

Taking off - The vehicle will take off when the transmission is shifted to 1st, 2nd or reverse gear, and the accelerator pedal is pressed.

The transmission ECU engages the clutch by controlling the clutch solenoid valve and the clutch release cylinder.

In addition, the transmission ECU controls the stroke of the clutch to achieve target engine speed in accordance with the opening angle of the accelerator pedal.

Shifting gears - The transmission ECU disengages the clutch when it receives an up-shift or down-shift signal from the shift lever or E-shift switches.

Once the control ECU has determined that the clutch is disengaged (via a signal from the clutch stroke sensor), it orders the shift solenoid and the select solenoid in the transmission actuator assembly to shift the gears.

When the shift has been completed, the control ECU engages the clutch while controlling the stroke and speed of the clutch.

If the driver maintains pressure on the accelerator pedal during the change, the control ECU automatically signals the engine ECU to momentarily close the electronic throttle - to prevent engine over-rev.

Conversely, when shifting with the accelerator pedal released, the throttle opens to match the engine speed and road speed.

Stopping - As the moving vehicle comes to a stop, and the transmission input shaft speed decreases below a pre-determined number of revolutions equal or less than 5km/h, the transmission control ECU automatically disengages the clutch.

When the shift lever is in the S range and the vehicle speed decreases below a predetermined level, the control ECU automatically down-shifts to 1st gear.

Parking - To park the vehicle, the driver must apply the parking brake, shift the gear lever to the S or R range, verify on the gear position indicator that the shifting has been properly executed, and turn the ignition switch OFF.

Once the ignition switch is turned OFF, the shift-lock mechanism causes the shift lever to lock.

Approximately one second later, the control ECU engages the clutch - thereby placing the transmission in gear-parking mode, the gears meshed.

The vehicle can be parked with the lever in R, N or S range. However, when the shift lever is in the N range, the gear-parking mode cannot be engaged because the gears are not meshed.

The gear-parking mode cannot be engaged if the ignition switch is turned OFF before the shift to the S or R range is indicated on the gear-position indicator.

The gear-position indicator remains active for 10 seconds after the ignition switch has been turned OFF, to allow the driver to verify the actual gear position.

The only fully automated function is when the driver stops and the gearbox shifts to first. The driver must make the other changes.

E-Shift Operation:

The driver can select gears (at the desired timing) with the shift up/down switches on MR2 Spyder's steering wheel.

The shift-down switches are located on the front surface of the steering wheel spokes.

The shift-up switches are located on the rear surface of the spokes.

Shifting to the desired gear can be made with finger-tip ease.

Safety Interlocks:

MR2 Spyder's sequential transmission has a number of safety interlock features.

The transmission will not select reverse while the vehicle is travelling forward. Conversely it will not select a forward gear if the vehicle is travelling backwards.

The control ECU will not permit a downshift which could result in the engine over-revving, or accept an up-shift that will result in under-revving.

A warning buzzer will sound if the shift lever is left in S (stand-by mode) for 90 seconds without pressing the brake pedal - because the transmission will have already selected first gear.

The buzzer will also sound if there is a mis-shift or a door is opened while the transmission is active.



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MR2 HAS IMPROVED SUSPENSION


The new lighter, stronger Toyota MR2 Spyder sports car has improved stability, controllability, responsiveness, grip and ride comfort. The new MR2 has a larger footprint than the vehicle it supersedes.
MR2's wheelbase has been increased by 50mm to 2450mm.

Front track has been increased by 5mm to 1475mm, and rear track by 10mm to 1460mm.

The new MR2 has a ~wheel at each corner~ and a front/rear tyre size differential for enhanced road holding.

MR2's suspension hardware has been redesigned and recalibrated.

The MacPherson-strut front suspension has a forged L-shaped lower arm, integrated with the lower ball joint, to optimise suspension rigidity and minimise unsprung weight.

A straight stabiliser bar has been adopted, to provide optimum roll control while reducing weight.

The stabiliser bar is now drop-linked to the suspension lower arms to optimise steering response.

MR2's MacPherson-strut rear suspension has dual lower link arms and a lateral control rod.

It is designed to minimise camber change during suspension travel.

The rear stabiliser bar is ball-joint-mounted, to minimise uncontrolled body roll.

Two types of high-performance tyre are offered: Bridgestone Potenza RE040 or Yokohama Advan A043.



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MR2 HAS ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC STEERING


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder has electro-hydraulic power-assisted rack and pinion steering as standard equipment.
The Toyota system, known as EHPS (electro-hydraulic power steering), is road-speed sensitive.

The system was designed to suit mid-ship engine installation and tuned to provide maximum assistance at parking speeds.

The number of turns lock-to-lock is just 2.66 - compared with 3.1 in the superseded MR2.

Toyota's new generation EHPS componentry consists of a dedicated electronic control unit and a high-torque rating direct-current motor driving a vane-type hydraulic pump - for quick response.

The power-steering ECU has self-diagnostic and fail-safe functions.

It also networks with the engine ECU to ensure the steering pump has sufficient electric current.

The steering ECU can ~ask~ the engine ECU to boost idle speed and provide more electric power - in a case where the driver turns the steering wheel without applying any throttle.



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SPYDER SPORTS ADVANCED PASSIVE SAFETY


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder sports car was designed for class-leading passive safety.
MR2 has been tested to surpass the latest Australian Design Rule requirements, as well as Toyota's strict in-house goal of having the highest passive safety in class.

MR2 has passed a 40 percent offset deformable barrier test at an impact speed of 60km/h - well in excess of the world test standard of 56km/h.

It has also been subjected to a rear moving barrier test at 80km/h and tough European regulations for side impact at 55km/h which is 5km/h faster than ADR requirements.

Requirements for passive and active safety were integrated into the new MR2 design from the initial design stages - beginning with a body shell which is torsionally stiffer than the current MR2.

Toyota used Finite Element Method analysis and numerous on-vehicle tests to achieve maximum front, rear and side-impact integrity.

MR2 Spyder has comprehensive structures to manage front and rear impact forces, and direct them away from the cabin space.

These structures include large side members, cross members and braces.

The rear impact absorbing structure makes use of MR2's luggage compartment space, as well as substantial upper and lower rear side members.

MR2's side impact collision absorbing structure includes:
* large-section rocker panels
* a large stiffening floor cross member
* optimal location for the front floor cross member, top and tarpaulin support frame, and the centre floor cross member - to minimise deformation of the cabin
* a bulkhead that directly joins the centre pillar and centre floor cross member, to ensure more energy is transmitted to the floor cross member in a collision
* and side impact protection beams in the doors, to efficiently absorb and dissipate energy.

MR2 also has a door trim centre pad to dampen impact force and hence reduce energy that might be transferred to the occupant.

Toyota MR2 Spyder has an extensive passive safety package.

Standard equipment includes three-sensor electronically controlled dual SRS airbags and force-limiting front seatbelt pretensioners.

The SRS airbag system is linked to a fuel cut, which stops the fuel pump if one or both airbags is deployed.

MR2 Spyder also has whiplash injury lessening (WIL) front seats.

The front seats have been designed to lessen the load on the occupant's neck during a rear-end collision.

Toyota has also designed MR2's seats with increased back-pad thickness, to provide increased protection in a rear-end collision.

MR2 Spyder has a five-way collapsible steering column, with a collapsible lower bracket, break-away bracket, energy absorbing plate, contractile main shaft and contractile intermediate shaft.

MR2 also has a brake pedal retraction system, to reduce the possibility of leg and foot injuries.

The brake pedal is designed to retract towards the firewall in the event of a serious frontal accident.



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MR2 HAS INCREASED ACTIVE SAFETY


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder sports car has increased active safety through better steering, grip and handling than the vehicle it supersedes - and significantly less weight.
MR2's new body is stiffer than the superseded MR2, providing a more stable platform for the suspension.

The new MR2 has a larger footprint on the road compared with the previous MR2.

Toyota has increased MR2's wheelbase by 50mm, and widened its track by 5mm at the front and 10mm at the rear.

The new Spyder retains MR2's proven handling attributes of a mid-engine/rear drive layout, all-independent suspension and a front/rear tyre size differential.

It has the added traction of limited slip differential as standard equipment.

MR2 Spyder has four-wheel disc brakes and four-channel/four-sensor ABS as standard equipment.

Stopping distance has been reduced by 13 percent compared with the superseded MR2.

The vehicle's steering has been improved, to provide for quicker steering response while retaining a linear feel.

MR2 Spyder has Toyota's unique electro-hydraulic assisted rack and pinion steering.

The EHPS system provides vehicle-speed sensitive power assistance.

The steering gear ratio has been changed from 16.5:1 to 13.6:1, to ensure excellent steering response with a linear feel.



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MR2 MAKES BETTER USE OF SPACE


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder is more compact than the superseded model, while offering a larger footprint on the road.
The new MR2 is 285mm shorter and 5mm narrower than the previous model.

However, MR2's wheelbase has been increased by 50mm to 2450mm.

Front track has been increased by 5mm to 1475mm, and rear track by 10mm to 1460mm.

MR2's overall height has been increased by 5mm, to 1240mm, however its centre of gravity has been lowered by 10mm.

Headroom has been increased by 45mm to 1055mm.



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MR2 SPYDER HAS TRUE SPORTS INTERIOR


The interior of Toyota's new MR2 Spyder puts the emphasis on function and sports performance.
The interior styling cues are retro/sports, with a three-dial instrument cluster and a free-rack system to mount the audio system and oddments box.

Standard safety equipment includes dual SRS airbags, front seatbelt pretensioners with forcelimiters and a four-way collapsible steering column.

The interior features silver and chrome colours, including the areas around the rotary heater controls and door handles.

The instrument cluster has silver-backed analogue gauges, with the tachometer in the centre.

The tachometer face includes a gear position indicator for the sequential shift.

MR2's steering wheel is a three-spoke sports design, with dimpled genuine leather covering for added grip.

The steering wheel has E-shift buttons, which can be used in preference to the short (10mm movement) gear shift lever.

The down-shift buttons are on the front surface of the steering wheel and the up-shift buttons are on the rear surface.

MR2 has two alloy sports pedals (there is no clutch pedal), a drilled left-foot rest and a chrome gear-shift lever knob.

The door trims have a true sporty flavour, with a chrome tube-type door grip, chrome inside door handles and side trim to match the seat fabric.

Special attention was paid to the safety and comfort of MR2's seats.

The seats feature Toyota's unique WIL (whiplash injury lessening) design and are designed to suit adults up to 190cm tall.

The hip point has been lowered, compared with superseded MR2, to provide a more sporty feel.

However, seat cushion firmness and damping have been increased - to support the pelvis and thighs and maximise grip.

Seat comfort has been further optimised by adopting a new back shape, for excellent lateral support and to reduce fatigue.

The seat back is designed to support the entire back area.

The leading edge of the passenger's seat is tilted upwards at 1.5 degrees, to maximise hold.

Back-pad thickness has been increased to improve protection in a rear-end collision.

The seats are three-way adjustable, for slide, recline and height.

There are four two-tone seat colour combinations, tied to exterior colour choice.

The four colours are Black, Red and Yellow fabric, and Tan leather.

The seat fabric combinations have a solid side colour and black mesh over the solid colour for the insert.

The Tan leather factory option (available from September 2000 production) has perforated leather inserts. Air conditioning is a dealer-fit option.

MR2 Spyder has a new 3-in-1 audio system, with radio, cassette and 6-CD in-dash multi-changer.

There are four speakers, including two tweeters.

A power antenna is standard equipment.



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STORAGE VARIETY FOR STYLISH SPYDER


Toyota's new MR2 Spyder sports car has a variety of storage locations.
A front storage box, under the bonnet, provides 50 litres of storage space - and contains the spare tyre.

The main luggage space is a 93-litre storage area behind the seats.

It is divided into left and right sections, both with lockable lids.

This storage location can accommodate a nine-inch golf bag.

At the bottom of the luggage space there is room for a tool bAG and first aid kit.

Traditional in-cabin storage locations include a seven-litre lockable glovebox and a 1.6-litre storage box in the centre of the dashboard.

The front bonnet opener is located in the glovebox, for added security.

The openers for the (rear) engine hood and fuel lid have key locks.

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MR2 DESIGNED FOR LOW NVH


Toyota MR2's increased body rigidity makes a significant contribution to reduced NVH.
Toyota has adopted lightweight damping and sound insulating materials throughout the MR2's cabin area, to reduce booming and incoming road noise.

MR2 also has ~rounded~ floor panels, to increase panel stiffness and reduce noise.

The new MR2 makes extensive use of recycled sound-proofing materials.



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TOYOTA'S NEW MR2 SPYDER IS A LOW-EMISSION VEHICLE


It was designed to meet California Air Research Board (CARB) LEV.
It's emissions are a fraction of the Australian Design Rule standards for the three gross pollutants.

MR2's hydrocarbon emissions are 15 percent of the ADR standard. Its carbon monoxide emissions are 38 percent of the ADR standard and its emissions of oxides of nitrogen are three percent of the mandated ADR requirement. The new MR2 Spyder has increased environmental friendliness throughout.

Special attention been paid to maximising fuel economy with MR2's new 1.8 litre VVTi-equipped engine.

MR2's fuel efficiency has been increased, thereby reducing production of carbon dioxide.

MR2's significantly reduced weight and improved aerodynamics contribute to improved fuel economy.

The new MR2 is 231kg lighter, while offering increased rigidity and passive safety.

The MR2 VVTi-engine has special features to optimise fuel efficiency and minimise emissions of HC, CO and NOx.

These include tapered-squish combustion chambers, straight inlet ports (to reduce wall wetting), full sequential injection into the inlet ports and intelligent variable valve timing.

Adopting intelligent variable valve timing means the MR2 engine can have a mild valve overlap at idle and low engine load, thereby reducing unburned fuel emissions.

MR2's engine has been installed with the shortest possible path from the exhaust ports to the catalytic converter, to increase converter efficiency.

MR2 has Toyota's latest WU-TWC (warm-up three-way catalytic converter technology), for improved converter heating and hence increased efficiency.

MR2 has a returnless fuel system, to reduce evaporative emissions.

The new MR2 Spyder is highly recyclable.

It uses highly recyclable Toyota Super Olefin Polymer (TSOP) for almost every major plastic part.

Much of the sound-absorbing material in MR2 is recycled sound-proof product.

Increasing use is being made of recycled Polypropylene in lieu of PVC.

Most plastic parts are labelled for future recycling.

MR2 also has an aluminium radiator core and heater core.



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SPECIFICATIONS








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