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Press Kits

2001 Toyota Prius Press Kit

  1. INTRODUCTION - BY JOHN CONOMOS
  2. TOYOTA LAUNCHES PRIUS HYBRID VEHICLE
  3. THE PRIUS IS RIGHT
  4. TOYOTA COMMITMENT TO GREEN POWER ABSOLUTE
  5. AUSTRALIA'S PRIUS PIONEERS STAND TALL
  6. QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT TRIALS PRIUS
  7. PRIUS HAS SAT NAV OPTION
  8. ORDER PRIUS ON-LINE
  9. GLOBAL SUPPORT FOR HYBRID CARS
  10. PRIUS SYMBOLISES TOYOTA'S NEW EARTH CHARTER
  11. HYBRID IS NECESSARY STEP TO ZERO EMISSION
  12. TOYOTA SUPPORTS INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM CONFERENCE
  13. PRIUS MEETS USAGE CONDITIONS
  14. HYBRID SYSTEMS AT CORE OF 21ST CENTURY MOTORING
  15. TARAGO HYBRID BREAKS NEW TECHNOLOGY GROUND
  16. TOYOTA DEVELOPS HYBRID-POWERED TRUCK
  17. GREENHOUSE INDEX MEASURES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  18. PRIUS HAS PARALLEL HYBRID DRIVELINE
  19. PRIUS DOUBLES FUEL ECONOMY
  20. PRIUS IS U-LEV
  21. PRIUS OFFERS SEAMLESS OPERATION
  22. TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM REDUCES GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS
  23. PRIUS REWARDS DRIVER FOR ENERGY SAVING
  24. PRIUS USES REGENERATIVE BRAKING
  25. PRIUS HAS HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSION ENGINE
  26. ATKINSON CYCLE BOOSTS ENGINE EFFICIENCY
  27. PRIUS CVT - THE SEAMLESS AUTO
  28. PRIUS MORE USER-FRIENDLY THAN CONVENTIONAL SMALL CAR
  29. SOFTWARE BRINGS THS TO LIFE
  30. TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM USES ADVANCED ELECTRICS
  31. PRIUS PROJECT HAS TECHNOLOGY FLOW-ON
  32. PRIUS INTERIOR SEATS FIVE
  33. PRIUS HAS UNIQUE STEERING SYSTEM
  34. PRIUS STYLED AT CALTY
  35. PRIUS OFFERS MAXIMUM PACKAGE EFFICIENCY
  36. PRIUS HAS SPECIALLY DEVELOPED SUSPENSION
  37. PRIUS IS QUIET INSIDE
  38. PRIUS DESIGNED FOR SAFETY
  39. PRIUS MEETS WORLD SAFETY STANDARDS
  40. PRIUS' IMPRESSIVE ACTIVE SAFETY PACKAGE
  41. TOYOTA PRIUS TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
  42. TOYOTA PRIUS FEATURES

INTRODUCTION - BY JOHN CONOMOS


To understand Toyota Prius it is important to recognise the absolute commitment of Toyota Motor Corporation to environmental management.
Toyota has made the environment one of its primary goals.

Toyota Prius - literally ‘To Go Before’ - is a precursor of alternative energy cars of the future. Toyota’s view however is that any green vehicle it builds has to be normal. It has to drive like a normal car (or better). It has to have the accommodation and utility an owner would normally expect.

The two year development program to bring Toyota Prius to market in Australia has now been met with extraordinary support.

Australians generally applaud the concept of less pollutant motor vehicles. Individuals, fleets and governments have all participated willingly in our Prius program, recognising that this first small step will lead to significant change.

The people who buy Prius will be delighted with it. It will provide them not only with an excellent five seat car built to Toyota’s high manufacturing standards, it will make them part of a new wave of car owners. There is a certain status which comes with being a Prius Pioneer. For many private owners Prius will be the family car or the second car - a vehicle reserved largely for city use, where it excels.

It is a whole new driving experience. The sheer genius of the technology ensures that the power switch between petrol engine and electric motor is imperceptible to the driver. The fact that the motor stops when the vehicle comes to rest means that no emissions are discharged in this situation. It is quieter and because it does not change gears in the accepted sense it is smoother. For some buyers it is exactly the answer to their needs regardless of its green credentials.

Within ten years hybrid power, whether it is petrol electric or fuel cell based, will be an accepted norm. Toyota and the Prius Pioneers, the early adopters, will be able to reflect with some pride that they were part of the evolution.

John Conomos

Senior Executive Vice-President

Toyota Australia.

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TOYOTA LAUNCHES PRIUS HYBRID VEHICLE


Toyota has launched its breakthrough five-seat Prius hybrid car in Australia.
The Prius uses up to 50 percent less petrol than an equivalent-sized conventional car and emits about half the carbon dioxide on a typical city drive cycle.

Emissions of carbon monoxide, NOx and hydrocarbons are only one thirteenth of legislated maximum permissible levels and one fifth those of an equivalent sized conventional car.

The Toyota Hybrid System in Prius seamlessly combines the power of an advanced 1.5-litre petrol engine and a 33kW electric motor.

The Atkinson Cycle, VVTi-equipped engine was designed for maximum efficiency.

It delivers 53kW of power at 4500rpm and 115Nm of torque at 4200rpm. The petrol engine automatically switches off when the car is stationary.

Energy that is not required to propel the car is converted to electricity and stored in a sealed 274 Volt battery, for use when required.

Regenerative braking allows the vehicle to convert kinetic energy into additional electricity.

Prius has a unique computer controlled constantly variable transmission, which allows the car to drive as an automatic.

Twelve computers control the vehicle's drive system, battery, inverters, cooling systems, steering, ABS brakes and airbag SRS.

Apart from its unique drive system, Prius is a fully specified normal four door sedan, capable of seating five adults.

It requires no special training to drive, uses 91 RON unleaded fuel and has 392 litres of boot space.

Standard equipment includes dual SRS airbags, ABS brakes, front seatbelt pretensioners with forcelimiters, power windows and power mirrors, electric power steering and climate control air conditioning with an economy mode.

Prius is offered in a choice of five exterior colours.

There is one option - DVD based, touch-screen satellite navigation.

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THE PRIUS IS RIGHT


The five seat Toyota Prius will be sold in Australia for a recommended retail price of $39,990.
It is considered to be an exceptionally good price in the light of the size of the car and the low volume expectations.

Toyota will initially deliver between 25 and 30 Prius each month.

The price is fully $8910 beneath the other hybrid car currently available. Yet Prius has normal sedan car seating and luggage capacity and superior comfort and convenience features.

The Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries has recognised and encouraged hybrid technology by creating a special category both in its buyers' guides and in statistician VFACTS' reports.

Toyota presents Prius as a normal car, which is prestigious to own and drive.

~There is every reason to classify Prius as a prestige car,~ Toyota senior executive vice-president John Conomos said.

~In build quality, in room and comfort and in cachet it is in every way the equal of many of the avant-garde styled European cars, some of which are classified as prestige vehicles.~

Mr Conomos said the concept of Prius was that its owners should sacrifice nothing for embracing the world leading technology.

~It is not an unusual car to drive, it is an easy car to drive and its technology is virtually seamless,~ he said.

~Yet it is the car of the future.~

Governments and government agencies would be among early Prius purchasers as they evaluated and then adopted technology which provided tangible benefit.

More than 70 percent of early Prius sales were expected to be to governments and corporations.

Early adopters in the private sector would be well rewarded for their choice.

~Prius will be light on fuel and so running costs will be low - a benefit which means a lot in daily operation,~ Mr Conomos said.

Mr Conomos said he expected resale value to be high, as is the case with the majority of Toyota products.

~Prius is a thoroughly modern, stylish motor car with a high emphasis on utility of purpose and occupant safety. It also delivers a real benefit to the environment.~

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TOYOTA COMMITMENT TO GREEN POWER ABSOLUTE


Toyota has delivered more than 60,000 Prius worldwide and aims to increase hybrid vehicle production to 300,000 a year by 2005. In May this year it launched the world's first hybrid people mover, a Tarago.
The Tarago hybrid has been brought to Australia for the launch of Prius and will be shown at the Sydney Motor Show.

The company aims to meet stringent 2010 auto emission standards with all its passenger cars by 2005.

Currently some 34 percent of its vehicles already meet the 2010 requirements.

Toyota's aim is to have the majority of its cars achieve ultra-low emission status by 2005. Ultra low requires vehicles to be 75 percent below 2000 standards.

The company now has two fuel cell hybrid vehicles running on Japan's roads under an arrangement with the country's transport department.

One is a 63-seat bus.

The other is a five seat fuel cell hybrid Sports Utility Vehicle (FCHV-4) which is a development of the FCHV-3 already undergoing road trials.

The FCHV-4 has a top speed of 150km/h and a cruising range of 250kms.

Neither is considered to be commercially viable.

A mild-hybrid system has just been debuted in the new Toyota Crown.

The THS-M (Toyota Hybrid System-Mild) can be used in many cars.

The mild system improves fuel efficiency by about 15 percent in part by shutting down the engine on idling.



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AUSTRALIA'S PRIUS PIONEERS STAND TALL


Queensland Government’s QFleet, Avis, and the family of a Victorian environmental lawyer are Australia’s first Prius Pioneers.
All three were recognised at the national launch of the world’s first hybrid sedan in Sydney on October 3.

QFleet, which manages more than 12,000 vehicles, has been assisting Toyota with its market evaluation of Prius by trialling six Prius for the past six months.

General manager Les Clarence said the vehicle met the government’s priority of Valuing the Environment.

~Reducing fuel costs and emissions is very important to us,~ Mr Clarence said.

~There is a strong case to make Prius part of our fleet.~

Mr Clarence has driven more than 13,000kms in Prius.

Australia’s largest rental car business Avis will also be taking a number of Prius from the first intake.

Avis managing director George Proos has instructed that staff should drive Prius as a means of being able to understand its technology and to be able to represent the car to renters.

Environmental lawyer Arnold Dix, his wife Dr. Karen Beckman and their children Sam, Hannah and Edward made a family decision to purchase Prius.

"Our children come home from school and talk about the environment, about recycling and about energy consumption,~ Mr Dix said.

~When we made the decision to buy Prius they were so excited."

Mr Dix said his was a functional family and Prius was a functional car.

~It's made for urban short haul work, for stop-start motoring - that's where it shines,~ he said.

~We make no sacrifices - it's like a normal car in every respect.

~Yet it's a way that we can show our children that by making small decisions we can make a little difference.

“We may not change the world - but it is a contribution.”

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QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT TRIALS PRIUS


Queensland Premier Peter Beattie took delivery of the first of six Toyota Prius at the Brisbane Motor Show earlier this year.
As part of Toyota's market evaluation of Prius, the Prius vehicles are under trial through the government’s Qfleet and have been placed with several departments including the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).

The trial is part of the government’s Smart State Sustainable Technology initiative.

"Queensland has some difficulty with pollution in its south east corner where there are mountains,~ Premier Beattie said at the handover.

~The Government is looking to reduce emissions, particularly in this area."

Mr Beattie said he had first driven a trial Prius the previous year on Queensland’s first Air Car Day.

~I was impressed,~ he said.

~In city driving Prius almost halves the amount of petrol used, and with the price of petrol these days that's not a bad achievement.

~Greenhouse gas emissions are a concern and a significant part of that is due to motor vehicles.

~Our work with Prius will offer a lead to governments around Australia. ~It is good to be in partnership with Toyota on this project.”

Mr Beattie described the handover of the first Prius as a green-letter day.

~We are seeing the car of the future,~ he said.

~I hope a lot of people in the future acquire them, and use them.”

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PRIUS HAS SAT NAV OPTION


Toyota's new Prius hybrid-powered car has the option of DVD, touch-screen satellite navigation.
The Prius' satellite navigation system uses a fully integrated electro-multivision (EMV) system with touch screen control.

Touch-screen control is claimed to provide simple entry of route instructions.

Toyota is the first manufacturer to offer sat nav with breakthrough DVD data storage - for faster route calculation and recalculation.

A single DVD disc contains all road map data for Australia, equivalent to 16 street directories costing $600 and weighing 16 kilograms.

Toyota sat nav includes a dual-map function, which can provide both a route overview and a close-up of the turns.

The system also has a user-friendly route preview function.

Toyota's Sat Nav system provides for multi-destination input.

Additional destinations can be added to the route at any time while the vehicle is stationary.

As well as adding destinations, the user can re-order the destinations/waypoints.

The in-dash display has provision to be oriented like a hard copy map.

It can point to the north or to the direction of travel as a means of easing driver recognition.

Voice instructions clearly tell the driver about upcoming intersections and other turns.

The DVD allows both the map and the voice to quickly recalibrate and continue to the destination even if the driver misses a turn.

Features include a points of interest library which offers a large menu of tourist attractions, restaurants, hotels, shops, community services and amusements.

A driver can also pre-program up to 106 locations.

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ORDER PRIUS ON-LINE


Customers will be able to order Toyota's petrol/electric powered Prius on-line through the http://www.prius.toyota.com.au website.
The ability to order a vehicle on-line is a first for Australian car buyers.

The Prius website uses secure Vignette e-commerce software to deliver this breakthrough buying process.

Interested parties can - under no-obligation - browse the virtual showroom and make on-line competitor comparisons with Prius.

If they wish to proceed to the next stage, customers can select interior and exterior colours and all other options available for Prius.

The website will search for the preferred car in Toyota's inventory system and provide a total price (excluding dealer delivery and statutory charges).

Toyota's inventory system will provide on-line a list of available Prius vehicles that are very close to the customer's first choice if it is not in stock.

Customers can then either choose one of the alternative Prius vehicles or order their specified vehicle to be built in Japan.

They can track the progress of their Prius on-line - from the paint-shop to the local wharf - if the vehicle is being built to their selection.

This can be done after the customer has purchased a Prius at the dealership through a secure Owners Site that customers can set up within the Prius website.

After completing the select and find process, customers will be contacted by their nearest Toyota dealer to complete the transaction.

The ability to access information on the manufacture and shipment of a Prius takes the transparency of the car buying process to a new level.

The customer can check the progress of the vehicle using an order number that appears on the sales receipt they receive via e-mail.

The receipt also specifies a Promised Delivery Date agreed to by the buyer.

Once pre-delivery has occurred, a notification is e-mailed to the buyer that their Prius is ready for delivery.

Prius owners are eligible for the Prius Experiences Program, the details of which can be accessed through their Private Owners Site.

The customer's account will remain active for the duration of the Prius's three-year warranty.



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GLOBAL SUPPORT FOR HYBRID CARS


Governments around the world have offered practical support to speed the introduction of fuel and emission efficient hybrid cars.
The support ranges from major financial incentives to allowing the vehicles to travel in transit lanes.

In Japan, owners are being offered up to $7300 in benefits including reductions in acquisition tax and company tax and increased depreciation allowance.

A special government loan has been established to encourage private buyers.

All 7000 Japanese government vehicles will progressively be greened, incorporating hybrid, fuel cell and CNG technologies.

In Iceland a government-funded 2700 Euro ($3700) tax discount is offered.

Ireland has a 50 percent vehicle registration tax rebate equivalent to around 11 percent of the sticker price of the vehicle.

In all, twelve world governments have offered support to green-energy vehicles.

Other examples include:

• USA: President George W. Bush on May 17 announced $US 4.2 billion ($7billion) tax credits for people who buy HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) between 2002-2007. The incentive has the potential to generate up to one million sales.

• UK: Stg1000 ($2850) subsidy on all vehicles

• Netherlands: exemption from registration tax until July 1, 2002 - 40 percent of purchase price.

• Austria: 1500 schilling ($2000) incentive in Vienna.

• France: 10,000 FF ($2700) income tax credit for clean vehicles.

• Singapore: 20 percent registration fee rebate on open market value.


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PRIUS SYMBOLISES TOYOTA'S NEW EARTH CHARTER


The Toyota Hybrid System, of which Prius is the first example, spearheads a move by Toyota to take leadership in environmental manufacturing.
The quest is company wide, from design to disposal.

In 1992 Toyota adopted its New Earth Charter in accordance with United Nations Agenda 21 guidelines, as a means of questioning and improving all aspects of its global manufacturing business - largely ahead of legislative requirement.

It revised it only last year to incorporate ~challenging the achievement of zero emissions.~

The company has been voted first for two years in succession by a Nihon Keizai Shimbun newspaper survey as Japan's most environmentally aware company.

TMC president Fujio Cho regards the environment as the core management issue of his company.

It is also a means of achieving advantage: ~Looking back at the history of automobiles Japan's starting line was widely different from that of Europe and the US,~ Mr Cho said.

~When Toyota founder Kiichiro Toyoda went to the US and was dreaming of manufacturing automobiles in 1929, the US was already producing five million cars a year.

~However the starting line for environmental technology is at the same point.

~It is my sincere wish to work hard so that one day we will be able to point to the various contributions that Japan has made to automotive technology,~ Mr Cho said.

~The social mission given to us as an automaker is to maximise the automobile's benefits and minimise its drawbacks.

~Creating automobiles with low environmental impact is no longer just one option for an automaker - it has become a crucial corporate task.

~It could be said that without environmental initiatives, the automobile has no future,~ Mr Cho said.

In 1999, the last available figures, Toyota spent Y101billion directly in environmental capital investment and research. Much of its Y400billion research and development budget was also spent on environmental issues.

The company is well advanced on a program to reduce muda, muri and mura - waste, excess and imbalance.

Already there is a payback. In FY1999, the last available period for which figures are available, reductions in energy costs and waste in Toyota's Japanese factories amounted to Y17billion.

The company's global manufacturing operations and their suppliers are being actively encouraged to adopt ISO 14001 certification, an international standard to create global parameters for environmental management.

The goal is not just to receive certification but to raise environmental performance through continuous improvement.

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HYBRID IS NECESSARY STEP TO ZERO EMISSION


Toyota has rejected claims that car companies should move straight to fuel cell technology, bypassing hybrid manufacture.
The claims, made by at least one global car maker, ignore the reality that other power trains will not automatically disappear, according to Toyota.

They also ignore the need to provide viable fuel supply infrastructures for fuel cell vehicles, which is a huge task.

Toyota is working actively on the development of a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) which it considers to be the ultimate eco-car. And it is also developing a fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) with storage batteries to provide greater range.

The FCHV is being developed with many of the technologies refined in Prius, including regenerative braking.

According to Toyota, hybrid technology is a short cut to achieving the ultimate eco-car.

~The automobile society of the near future will be an era in which cars based on various powertrains will co-exist, offering excellent fuel efficiency and reduced emissions,~ Toyota's chairman environmental product design Hiroyuki Watanabe said in a recent paper. ~Even if a fuel cell electric vehicle is successfully commercialised, other powertrains will not disappear.

~Improving existing powertrains and developing hybrid systems by combining them with electric motors is more advantageous in terms of cost and infrastructure,~ Mr Watanabe said.

~Before fuel cell electric vehicles can be widely adopted their performance must be improved, costs must be reduced and fuel supply infrastructures must be established.~

Toyota's matrix for foreseeable automotive use shows petrol, diesel and CNG vehicles co-existing with hybrid and fuel cell vehicles.

Fuel cell vehicles, and other hybrids based on petrol, diesel and CNG engine partnerships would be a direct result of the work done on current hybrid development.

Already in the three year commercial life of the Toyota Prius great gains had been made in battery technology.

The size of the nickel-metal hydride battery had been reduced by 40 percent, providing substantial savings in space and weight without reducing storage.



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TOYOTA SUPPORTS INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM CONFERENCE


Toyota's honorary chairman Shoichiro Toyoda was to have been chairman of the sixth world Intelligent Transport System (ITS) conference currently being held in Sydney.
World events have prevented Dr Toyoda from travelling.

The ITS conference, attended by more than 2000 delegates, is seeking ways of streamlining transportation and reducing emissions and waste.

The retention of personal transportation and of maximum flexibility of travel is regarded as an essential requisite of future solutions.

According to Toyota, increasing the average speed of automobiles by easing congestion in urban areas and on expressways is a goal to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

In broad terms individual carbon dioxide emission can be more than halved with an increase in speed from a 10km/h crawl to a 40km/h average.

It is estimated in Japan that eleven percent of fuel used by automobiles is wasted because of road congestion and delays in metropolitan areas.

Thirty five percent of congestion on expressways is at tollbooths.

Non-stop electronic toll collection (ETC) to allow drivers to drive through booths and be billed later is a solution under urgent consideration.

In Japan 1200 ETC points will be installed by 2002.

Toyota two years ago introduced on the domestic market a vehicle information and communication system (VICS) which provided traffic information on congestion and accidents using FM radio transmission.

It is estimated an economic loss of Y30 billion a year could be prevented if just 20 percent of cars in Japan used the system. Toyota's development of ITS systems is well advanced.

A project called Crayon offers time-share electric cars which can be picked up from stations throughout a city, and driven to any destination for virtually any period of time.

They are then returned to the pool for use by another timeshare user.

The potential for the ITS market in Japan is estimated at Y50 trillion a year.



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PRIUS MEETS USAGE CONDITIONS


Toyota's Hybrid System meets the three classic conditions for widespread automotive use.
Motor vehicle use in the last 100 years has depended on ease of use, affordability and an infrastructure to supply fuel.

In 1900, steam, electric and internal combustion cars co-existed. The total ~car park~ in the United States in 1900 was approximately 200,000 vehicles, with 50 percent steam powered, 30 percent electric and 20 percent internal combustion.

However, limited supply of soft water for boilers produced problems for steam cars.

Electric cars were easy to operate - but suffered from a short operating range - compared with long charging times.

Internal combustion cars proved in the next two decades to be more practical.

The fuel for internal combustion cars (petrol) was a by-product of a more widely used product of 1900 - kerosene used in lanterns.

Petrol was initially available in urban drugstores, thereby providing the beginnings of a fuel supply system.

The invention of the electric starter in 1911 and synchromesh transmission solved two of the initial drawbacks of internal combustion cars - difficulty in starting with a crank handle and cumbersome transmissions.

Henry Ford's introduction of mass production on a belt conveyor in 1914 helped dramatically reduce cost and hence increase sales volume.

Prius meets the same three wide usage conditions as petrol cars met 85 years ago.

Its petrol engine does not require new infrastructure, like other ecocars.

It is easy to use and offers reduced fuel consumption and reduced CO2 emissions.

And it is reasonably priced - with sales already exceeding 60,000 units worldwide.



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HYBRID SYSTEMS AT CORE OF 21ST CENTURY MOTORING


Toyota sees hybrid systems as the core technology for 21st Century automotive use.
Criteria for the new century have encompassed various powertrains, offering excellent fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions.

A century ago, electric vehicles, steam vehicles and internal combustion petrol vehicles made up the world vehicle car park.

However, the prime focus of development through the 20th Century was internal combustion - mainly on petrol and diesel engines.

Breakthroughs have more lately been made in compressed natural gas and hybrid vehicles.

In the 21st century, development avenues include electric vehicles, petrol vehicles, diesel vehicles, CNG vehicles, and a range of hybrids, some based on fuel cell technology.

The hybrids could include petrol, diesel, CNG, fuel cell and other potential power sources.

Electric vehicle technology will become more widespread and will cross-fertilise hybrid development.

Recent achievements in electric vehicle technology have helped Toyota reduce the size of the Prius battery pack by 40 percent.



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TARAGO HYBRID BREAKS NEW TECHNOLOGY GROUND


Toyota has launched the world's first volume-production all-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle.
The seven-seat Toyota Tarago Hybrid family wagon has three breakthrough power-management technologies - an unprecedented development for a production vehicle.

Tarago Hybrid combines petrol and electric drive for the front wheels with electric drive for the rear wheels.

It slashes greenhouse emissions compared with a conventional family wagon and provides great on-road versatility.

The hybrid Tarago has a variety of power-generating and convenience-enhancing features.

It also has leading-edge active safety features, for optimum driving stability.

There are three power-management technologies.
• THS-C (Toyota Hybrid System-CVT) combines a petrol engine, electric motor and traditional constantly variable transmission to power the front axle
• E-Four regulates a rear-mounted electric motor to power the rear wheels, and to coordinate power distribution to all four wheels
• ECB (Electronically Control Brake system) provides efficient wheel-by-wheel brake control and optimum management of the regenerative brake system.

Tarago Hybrid chief engineer Shigeru Matsuhashi said the new technology had created a stylish vehicle with benchmark driving stability, fuel economy and environmental compatibility.

~We took our desire to create a breakthrough vehicle and reflected it against the key automotive elements of environment, safety and 'fun-to-drive',~ he said.

~We also realised that our new hybrid system was well-suited for a medium-size or large vehicle. The final product is a perfect example of a leap in automotive evolution.~

Tarago Hybrid has a potential cruising range of 1000 kilometres and achieves double the fuel efficiency outlined by Japanese government standards for 2010.

It greatly reduces carbon dioxide emissions and slashes hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen output to better than 75 percent below Japanese Year 2000 standards.

In addition, the vehicle's innovative hybrid system generates up to 1500 Watts of auxiliary 100-volt AC power - more than enough to power anything from a laptop to a hair dryer.

Advanced Intelligent Transport System (ITS) technologies include a navigation and ETC-compatible (electronic toll collection) multi-information display, as well as an optional back-up guide monitor system.

Energy saving features include wind-cheating exterior design, special chassis features to reduce rolling resistance, an insulated body to minimise air conditioner load and an intuitive air conditioning control.

The air conditioning system has a humidity sensor to prevent excessive dehumidification when the humidity is low and hence optimises air conditioner performance (and reduces fuel consumption) by not engaging the compressor.

It also keeps the windows defogged.

New Hybrid system & E-Four

Toyota's newly developed THS-C hybrid system combines Tarago's 2.4-litre high-efficiency petrol engine with an electric motor and traditional CVT transmission.

Its efficient use of drive power creates low fuel consumption and a smooth ride.

The E-Four electric 4WD system provides better driving performance by controlling the rear-wheel drive motor - as it coordinates electric power distribution to all four wheels according to the driving conditions.

E-Four provides additional drive power when needed, such as when accelerating from a standing start or on slippery road surfaces. Tarago Hybrid's petrol engine has been newly developed for hybrid vehicles.

The 2AZ-FXE engine - a modified version of the Tarago engine - has a high-expansion ratio cycle (similar to the Prius engine) that enhances fuel economy by improving efficiency and reducing friction loss.

Toyota Tarago Ultima automatic was this year named the most fuel effective petrol-only vehicle out of more than 700 models rated in Wheels Magazine's annual fuel-efficiency survey.

In addition, optimum control of the Super CVT and front motor creates low emissions levels.

The combination of petrol and electric power provides smooth driving from low to high speeds.

Tarago Hybrid's compact CVT provides a wide-range continuously variable gear ratio high performance and seamless transition from low to high speeds.

The rear transaxle combines an electric motor and differential gear in a single unit, for a more lightweight, compact structure.

This design eliminates the need for a propeller shaft, thereby keeping overall weight increase to a minimum.

Electronic Braking

Tarago Hybrid's electronically controlled brake system (ECB) is the first electronically controlled braking system in a production vehicle.

It improves environmental performance, handling and driving stability - using independent and linear hydraulic controls for each wheel.

The electronic brake system includes sensors that provide information on brake pedal stroke and vehicle speed.

The system determines the most efficient distribution of braking force between electric and hydraulic application of the brakes, in addition to using gathered information to calculate optimum oil pressure.

The ECB networks with the E-Four system to maximise regenerating running energy.

The system also controls the brake pedal's resistance to the amount of pressure applied, to create a natural brake pedal feel.

Toyota Tarago Hybrid also has advanced active safety features including vehicle stability control, traction control and ABS with electronic brake force distribution.



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TOYOTA DEVELOPS HYBRID-POWERED TRUCK


Toyota last year unveiled a world-first hybrid-powered truck, with potential fuel efficiency gains of 50 percent over conventionally powered vehicles of equivalent capacity.
The diesel/electric powered truck uses similar technology to Toyota Prius, showing that diesel powerplants can also benefit from hybrid technology.

The truck, first seen at the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2000, is one of a number of Toyota hybrid vehicles.

The company now has developed a four-wheel-drive Tarago Hybrid, with the THS-C (Toyota Hybrid System-CVT) driving the front wheels and an electric motor (E-Four) driving the rear wheels.

Toyota also offers the THS-M system in Crown and has developed a fuel cell hybrid sports utility vehicle (SUV).

Toyota developed the hybrid-powered truck to achieve smooth, low-noise city driving while minimising emissions in urban delivery driving situations.

It has new Toyota-developed catalytic converter technology, which reduces particulate matter and NOx emissions by approximately 80 percent compared to conventional catalysts.

Breakthrough environmental features of the new Diesel-Hybrid System truck include stepless electronic transmission technology that only engages the diesel engine in its most efficient revolution range.

The turbocharged diesel engine is only used at revolutions where the exhaust gas is cleanest and fuel efficiency is maximised.

Leading-edge technology in the four-tonne payload diesel-hybrid truck also includes:

• a low-pollution/high efficiency turbocharged and intercooled direct-injection diesel engine with common-rail electronic fuel injection

• provision of two motor/generator units to power the vehicle and generate electricity (there is a computer-controlled clutch between the two motor/generators)

• Toyota's world-leading hybrid-power computer software

• regenerative braking

• and Toyota's new DPNR catalytic converter system, to minimise particulate matter and NOx emissions.

As with Prius, the diesel-hybrid truck uses a Toyota-developed parallel/series hybrid system, which combines the best aspects of both series and parallel hybrids, for greater efficiency.

A series hybrid uses an internal combustion engine to generate electricity for an electric propulsion motor.

A parallel hybrid uses both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor (or motors) for motive power, switching back and forth between them as the situation demands.

The new diesel-hybrid truck combines both systems.

It uses electric motive power for low-speed and light-load situations, and engages the diesel engine for normal (laden) operations and when the vehicle is accelerating.

During deceleration, the two motor/generator units act as generators, converting kinetic energy to electricity - to be stored for future use.

The diesel engine has Toyota's breakthrough DPNR (diesel particulate and NOx reduction system) catalytic converter - which simultaneously purifies particulate matter and NOx.

Toyota's truck-engine DPNR converter has the added sophistication of an internal switching system.

The switching system periodically varies exhaust-gas flow within the converter to use the porous ceramic structure in two alternate directions.

This system maintains converter efficiency and long-term durability, while increasing the package efficiency of the converter.



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GREENHOUSE INDEX MEASURES ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT


An Australian developed life-cycle analysis of vehicle environmental impact could one day replace fuel consumption as a true measure of environment friendliness.
The Greenhouse Gas Index was designed to measure the life-cycle environmental impact of a vehicle, including its manufacture, load-carrying capability and recyclability.

NRMA senior manager, Automotive Technical Services, John Ward, developed the GGI to take into account the upstream and downstream impacts of a vehicle.

It can be applied to comparative analysis of all forms of mobility, from cycling to air travel.

For example, the GGI takes into account the CO2 produced in generating electricity for battery electric vehicles.

The GGI includes allowance for the recycling potential of the materials used in the vehicle and an assessment of energy intensive technologies used in the manufacturing process.

John Ward argues that building a vehicle with an all-aluminium or composite body saves weight and hence fuel, but that such materials are energy intensive to produce and in the case of some composites may be difficult to recycle.

John Ward's paper proposing the GGI says: ~As all transport energy used currently, and for the major foreseeable future, generates the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2), no comparison of transport modes for their environmental impact can be made without comparing the generation of this gas.

~To gain a valid comparison, all processes used, from manufacture of the materials to construct the transport vehicle through to the production and processing of the fuel, and the fuel used in the operation of the vehicle must be accounted for.~

The key parameters in determining the CO2 greenhouse impact are:

• CO2 generated in the manufacture of the vehicle

• CO2 generated in the production and distribution of the fuel

• CO2 generated by the vehicle in operation

• the useable life of the vehicle or system

• the speed and distance travelled in the transport task

• the useful load carried, passengers or goods

• the recyclability of the construction materials.

The GGI is defined as:
Kilograms of CO2 produced, divided by the product of payload produced by distance travelled.

The kilograms of CO2 figure is determined by adding the CO2 produced in the production of the vehicle, plus the CO2 produced in converting energy to propulsion during the task plus, the product of CO2 produced in manufacture multiplied by an allowance for credit for recycling of material.

On this calculation, a small to medium hybrid generally has nearly half the GGI of an Australian family six.



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PRIUS HAS PARALLEL HYBRID DRIVELINE


Toyota's Prius has a sophisticated petrol-electric parallel hybrid powertrain for reduced environmental impact.
Prius was the world's first volume-selling hybrid-technology passenger car.

The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) driveline consists of a purpose-developed 1.5 litre petrol engine, a continuously variable transmission (CVT) which also functions as a power-split device, a generator, an electric motor and reduction gears to the front axle.

One set of planetary gears serves as both the CVT and power-split device.

The power-split device divides the power from the petrol engine into two paths.

One goes directly to the electric motor and the reduction gears (which are on the same drive shaft), the other to the generator.

Engine power can be transmitted to the front axle via a mechanical path and an electrical path, or a mixture of both.

The controlled continuously variable transmission smoothly adjusts the speed of the engine, generator and motor when the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating.

Some of the engine's power output is transmitted to the electric motor, via the generator, as supplementary power for vehicle acceleration.

A single electronic control unit (computer) for the Toyota Hybrid System controls the engine, power-split/power transmission device, generator, motor, inverter and battery.

As well as propelling the vehicle, the THS driveline allows for energy saving regenerative braking.

Continuously Variable Transmission:
The Toyota Hybrid System transmission acts as an electronically controlled continuously variable transmission (CVT) which can freely vary the engine speed.

It achieves this by controlling the generator's revolutions, dispensing with the need for a conventional transmission.

The power-split device operates via a planetary gear system, in which the engine output shaft drives the planetary gear carrier, and uses a set of pinion gears to simultaneously transmit power to the outer ring gear and the inner sun gear.

The shaft of the outer ring gear connects directly to the electric motor and (through the drive shaft), to the reduction gears and hence the front wheels.

The shaft of the sun gear drives the generator.

The use of one set of planetary gears to achieve two roles provides a significant saving in weight and space under the bonnet - compared with either a traditional automatic transmission or a belt and pulley type CVT.

There is no torque converter and hence no loss of energy through slippage in the driveline.



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PRIUS DOUBLES FUEL ECONOMY


Toyota's new Prius hybrid car has the potential to almost double fuel economy and hence virtually halve CO2 emissions compared with a conventional car of similar size.
Prius has achieved 4.6 l/100km (61mpg) on the AS2877 city cycle and 4.2l/100km (67mpg) on the highway cycle.

Prius' economy is nearly double that of Corolla automatic (8.5 l/100km) on the AS2877 city cycle.

Prius has similar interior space to the medium-four Toyota Camry sold in Australia from 1987 to 1993.



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PRIUS IS U-LEV


Toyota Prius is an ultra-low emission vehicle, under the California Air Research Board criteria.
Prius also meets the tough Euro IV emission requirements - perhaps a decade in advance of Australian certification.

In city driving its carbon dioxide emissions are approximately half those of a similar-sized conventional petrol car.

Five-seat Prius produces one-fifth the tailpipe emissions (HC, CO and NOx) of a similar-sized conventional car.

Prius has extremely low oxides of nitrogen emissions.

Its NOx emissions are less than eight percent of the CARB standard and 1.6 percent of the current Australian Design Rule requirement.

Prius has 1/20th the HC emissions and 1/13th the CO emissions of the current ADR standard.



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PRIUS OFFERS SEAMLESS OPERATION


Toyota's Prius hybrid-technology vehicle offers seamless matching of petrol engine and electric motor power - for smooth, low-emission, low fuel consumption driving.
The petrol engine is the key component.

The petrol engine drives through the power-split device (an advanced type of planetary gear assembly), which sends part of the power to the wheels and part to a generator.

Electricity from the generator can be fed directly to the electric motor to help propel the car, or through the inverter - to be converted into direct current and stored in the battery.

The combination of the Toyota Hybrid System's electronically controlled continuously variable transmission and electric motor assistance gives Prius smooth acceleration and deceleration, and excellent response.

The high torque of the electric motor from zero revolutions gives Prius excellent initial acceleration.

For maximum acceleration, the system uses power from both the petrol engine and electric motor (using energy stored in the battery).

How Toyota's Hybrid System Works:
1) When moving off, moving at extremely low speeds, descending long gentle hills and for other conditions where the petrol engine would not operate at peak efficiency, the engine is turned off. The electric motor alone propels the car.

2) During normal operations, the petrol engine's power is split, with some power used to propel the car and the remainder used to generate electricity. The electricity is fed to the electric motor and/or the batteries, to assist in powering the car. The Toyota Hybrid System computer controls the ratio of power to each path, for maximum efficiency.

3) The battery is regulated to maintain a constant charge. If the battery charge is low, the Toyota Hybrid System uniquely sends more engine power to the generator to generate electricity. Prius is the only production hybrid to drive and charge the battery at the same time.

4) During full-throttle acceleration, additional energy is drawn from the battery to boost the electric motor's output.

5) During deceleration or braking, the electric motor acts as a generator, transforming kinetic energy from the wheels into electricity.

The recovered energy is stored in the battery.

6) The petrol engine shuts down automatically after a period of time when the vehicle is stopped.



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TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM REDUCES GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS


The Toyota Hybrid System in city driving can almost halve greenhouse gas emissions and virtually double fuel economy compared with a conventional vehicle.
Prius' fuel economy to AS2877 is 4.2 litre/100km highway cycle and 4.6 litre/100km city cycle.

This is approximately twice the city cycle fuel economy of a comparably-sized conventional four-cylinder passenger car with automatic transmission.

The doubling of fuel economy means a halving of carbon dioxide emissions.

The Toyota Hybrid System also reduces toxic emissions of ~gross pollutants~ - carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen.

Prius' emissions are well below the level permitted under the current Australian Design Rule ADR 37/01 for passenger cars.

Evaporative emissions 1/12 OR 8% OF ADR

HC (hydrocarbons) 1/20 OR 5% OF ADR

CO (Carbon monoxide) 1/13 OR 8% OF ADR

NOx (Oxides of nitrogen) 1/60 OR 2% OF ADR

Prius is an ultra-low emission vehicle under the tough California Air Research Board criteria.

Toyota Prius achieves these improvements, while offering space for five adults, passive safety to world's best standards, and smooth acceleration and response.

Energy saving features include regenerative braking and a state-of-the-art petrol engine that shuts down when not required.

Hybrid Systems:
Hybrid systems are automotive power plants that use both petrol engines and electric motors for motive power.

Conventionally, there are two kinds of hybrid systems:
i) series hybrids, which use a petrol engine to generate electricity for the electric motor (and sometimes batteries) to propel the vehicle
ii) parallel hybrids, which use both petrol engines and electric motors for motive power, and switch back and forth between them as driving conditions demand.

The Toyota Hybrid System:
The Toyota Hybrid System combines the best aspects of both series and parallel hybrids, for greater efficiency.

In addition, Toyota has reduced the size and weight of all the components - engine, generator, motor and battery - thereby providing more space for the passengers and further improving fuel economy.

The Toyota Hybrid System's planetary gear power-split device divides the engine's power along two paths, one to the generator to produce electricity and the other to drive the front wheels.

Controlling this power split is one of the secrets to the efficiency of the system.

The primary power source is a specially developed 1.5 litre Twin Cam Multi-valve Atkinson cycle(high expansion ratio) engine. It delivers maximum extraction of combustion gas expansion energy and low pumping and friction loses.

The engine achieves its best fuel consumption per unit of output when operating in the high-torque ranges.

Therefore, depending on conditions, the system controls the division of power between engine and electric motor - so the engine always operates in that range.

If extra power is required during acceleration, the Toyota Hybrid System draws energy from the battery and sends it to the electric motor.

A characteristic of an electric motor (maximum torque from zero revolutions) provides the added benefit of highly responsive take-off.

Smooth Acceleration:
The Toyota Hybrid System therefore offers acceleration which matches or exceeds that of a conventional car with automatic transmission.

Moreover, the Toyota Hybrid System driveline acts as an intelligent continuously variable transmission.

There are no gear changes and so acceleration occurs without gearshift shock.

There is no torque converter and hence no efficiency loss through slippage.

When the vehicle is stopped, decelerating or running at a low speed, the engine automatically shuts off to save fuel and reduce exhaust emissions.

When the vehicle decelerates, the motor acts as a generator, converting the vehicle's kinetic energy into electricity and sending it through the inverter to be stored in the battery.



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PRIUS REWARDS DRIVER FOR ENERGY SAVING


Toyota's Prius hybrid vehicle has a unique energy consumption monitoring display.
The display gives the driver a guide to energy consumption and electric power regeneration.

It ~rewards~ the driver for energy saving - such as the use of regenerative braking.

The energy guide is one menu on Prius' centrally positioned multi-information touch screen display.

Other display menus include an energy flow diagram, audio status and the optional DVD touch-screen satellite navigation system.

Information on the energy consumption screen includes the amount of energy regenerated, current fuel consumption, average fuel consumption (with projected range) and outside air temperature.



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PRIUS USES REGENERATIVE BRAKING


Toyota's Prius petrol-electric hybrid car has a regenerative braking system.
The regenerative system delivers a number of significant benefits over a conventional braking system.

It recovers energy - and hence improves fuel economy and lowers greenhouse gas emissions.

The regenerative braking system can provide the majority of the total braking force in low-speed, stop-start traffic, where little deceleration is required.

This significantly improves the fuel economy and emissions of a hybrid vehicle and further enhances the attractiveness of hybrid vehicles for city driving.

Regenerative braking also contributes to improved economy and lower emissions at higher speeds, with increases in fuel economy of up to 20 percent.

The electric motor acts as a generator, converting kinetic energy from the vehicle's motion into a reusable form, electricity, which is stored in the battery.

Prius' brake system has its own electronic control unit.

The brake system ECU networks with the Toyota Hybrid System ECU to determine the best balance of regenerative and friction braking for the driving conditions.

Regenerative Operation:
The system acts on the front wheels - the most effective wheels for braking effort.

It can be activated in either of two ways.

When the accelerator pedal is released, the absence of pressure triggers a response from the Toyota Hybrid System electronic control unit to begin regenerative braking.

In this example, the friction brakes are not engaged.

If greater braking effort is required, the brake pedal is depressed and the braking ECU engages both braking methods.

Friction Brakes And ABS:
Prius has impressive hydraulically controlled friction brakes, in addition to its regenerative braking system.

Prius has ventilated 255mm x 25mm front disc brakes and solid 269mm x 9mm rear discs.

The system includes ABS with electronic brake-force distribution, as standard equipment.



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PRIUS HAS HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSION ENGINE


Toyota Prius' petrol engine is state-of-the-art for efficiency and low emissions in a volume-production reciprocating power plant.
Toyota has adopted leading-edge engine technology throughout the 1.5 litre Prius engine, for maximum fuel and package efficiency, and minimum emissions.

It delivers 53kW of power at 4500rpm and 115Nm of torque at 4200rpm.

State-of-the-art features in the Prius engine include:

• an all-alloy construction cylinder head and engine block, for maximum thermal efficiency and minimum weight

• a Twin Cam Multi-valve cylinder head

• variable valve timing with intelligence (VVTi)

• high-expansion ratio Atkinson operating cycle coupled with long piston stroke (bore and stroke dimensions are 75mm x 84.7mm)

• low-rpm engine operation

• full sequential fuel injection with 12-point fuel injector nozzles mounted in the inlet ports

• an offset crankshaft centreline

• reduced reciprocating mass and lightweight valve train components, low friction pistons, piston rings and low-load valve springs.

Additional fuel and emission saving technology includes advanced computer engine management, individual Toyota Direct Ignition for each of the four cylinders, electronic spark advance with a knock control system and an electronic throttle (drive by wire).

Many of these features, including multi-point fuel injection and Twin Cam Multi-valve cylinder heads, are standard equipment on all Toyota passenger vehicles, while direct ignition is available on most passenger models.

This engine in the Otto cycle form is used in the Echo model range. Low-Revolution Strategy:
The Prius engine has maximum engine revolutions of 4500rpm, to maximise fuel efficiency.

The low-revolution philosophy has allowed engineers to use ~mild~ valve timing, lighter moving parts, a smaller diameter crankshaft, less tension in the piston rings, reduced valve spring load and smaller bearings - for significantly reduced internal friction.

The crankshaft is offset 12mm to the thrust side of the cylinder bore centre line.

This reduces the side force generated at maximum compression, for reduced friction and maximum torque.

The offset crankshaft configuration reduces fuel consumption by between one and three percent, based on the petrol-only operation.

Twin Cam Multi-valve:
The Prius engine has an aluminium alloy cylinder head for maximum thermal efficiency.

The cylinder head has two overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder.

The twin cam design provides for direct valve actuation, which minimises valve train inertia and allows for optimum cam profiles.

It results in more positive actuation and less free play.

Toyota employs four valves per cylinder on all its passenger car engines to increase intake valve area (and hence engine breathing) and to reduce valve inertia compared with a two-valve design of equivalent intake area.

The four-valves per cylinder concept also allows for a more efficient combustion chamber, with a central spark plug.

The four-valve design also allows the engine designer to employ milder valve timing, while still achieving full cylinder filling.

The Prius engine also has vertical intake ports, to further boost engine breathing.

The fuel injection nozzles are located in the inlet ports, to prevent wall wetting and fuel adhesion to the walls of the port, thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions.

Variable Valve Timing:
The Toyota Prius engine has variable valve timing with intelligence, a flow-down from the Lexus luxury car program.

VVTi provides continual variations of the intake valve timing, to match the engine's operating conditions.

It complements the Atkinson cycle concept.

Variable valve timing improves performance and fuel efficiency, and reduces vibration on engine start-up and shut-down.

VVTi engines are now fitted to Celica, Echo, RAV4, MR2, Tarago and the soon-to-be-released Avensis Verso and new generation Corolla.

Inlet timing can be varied over a range of 43 degrees.

The Prius engine has a compact cylinder head design, with an included valve angle of 33.5 degrees, for maximum efficiency.

The combustion chambers are almost entirely machined, to ensure minimum variance in combustion chamber volume across the four cylinders.

The compression ratio has been set at 13.0:1 - a high figure for an engine operating on unleaded petrol - to improve combustion efficiency and power output across the revolution range.

The combustion chambers in the Prius engine employ a slanted (oblique) squish design, to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the chance of engine knock (pre-ignition).

The squish angle has been shaped obliquely along the wall surface of the combustion chamber, to improve airflow, promote swirl and speed flame travel.

Special attention has been paid to cooling the combustion chamber, including provision of a water jacket between the exhaust port and the spark plug boss, to lower the operating temperature at the exhaust valve seat and improve cooling performance.

Engine package efficiency has been maximised and weight minimised by adopting an aluminium cylinder block and compact intake manifold design.

Service weight of the Prius engine is 87.1 kilograms.



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ATKINSON CYCLE BOOSTS ENGINE EFFICIENCY


Toyota's advanced Prius 1NX-FXE four-stroke reciprocating engine employs the Atkinson, or high-expansion, cycle for improved efficiency.
It has smaller combustion chambers and a higher expansion ratio than a conventional Otto cycle engine.

The Atkinson cycle design makes full use of combustion energy, by keeping the exhaust valves closed until the end of the expansion stroke.

The expansion stroke is extended until the expansion pressure has virtually dissipated, converting more of the combustion energy into torque on the crankshaft.

Toyota has combined the Atkinson cycle with a long-stroke engine design, offset crankshaft, direct ignition and variable valve timing with intelligence, to further improve efficiency.

The Prius engine was designed to operate at below 4500rpm.

The low revolution limit enables the use of smaller, friction-reducing main, big-end and little-end bearings.

High-Expansion Ratio:
In a conventional (Otto) cycle engine, the compression stroke volume and expansion stroke volume are practically identical, and hence the compression ratio and expansion ratio are identical.

Any attempt to increase the expansion ratio results in an increase in compression ratio, and hence greater likelihood of engine-damaging engine knock or pre-ignition.

The Atkinson cycle engine solves this dilemma by delaying the closing of the intake valves.

The intake valves remain open for the initial stage of the compression stroke (when the piston is ascending), effectively delaying the start of compression and hence reducing the compression ratio.

The small combustion chamber volume in Prius still ensures a relatively high compression ratio of 13.0:1.

A small portion of the intake air that has been drawn into the cylinder during the intake phase is returned to the intake manifold.

This slight amount of back-flow into the intake manifold produces a benefit in partial load conditions.

It allows for an increase in throttle valve opening, thereby reducing intake manifold vacuum and hence reducing intake pumping losses.

Two Ratios:
The expansion and compression ratios are determined by these formulae. Expansion ratio equals (expansion stroke volume + combustion chamber volume), divided by combustion chamber volume.

Compression ratio equals (compression stroke volume + combustion chamber volume), divided by combustion chamber volume.

Atkinson And Miller:
The Atkinson cycle was proposed in the 1880s by English engineer James Atkinson, to enable the compression stroke and expansion stroke to be set mechanically independently of each other.

Later, this concept was extended by the American R.H. Miller, who developed a supercharged system called the Miller cycle, in which the opening and closing of the intake valves was made adjustable.

The system offers high thermal efficiency but does not generate high output, so until now any practical application involved the addition of a supercharger.

Toyota is the first manufacturer to bring a naturally aspirated Atkinson Cycle engine to market.



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PRIUS CVT - THE SEAMLESS AUTO


Toyota Prius has the seamless acceleration of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) - without the need for a belt and pulleys.
Prius' Toyota Hybrid System acts as an electronically controlled CVT, which can freely vary the engine speed.

It achieves this by controlling the generator's revolutions.

Therefore, the vehicle does not need a conventional transmission.

The power-split device operates via a planetary gear system, in which the engine output shaft drives the planetary gear carrier, and uses a set of pinion gears to simultaneously transmit power to the outer ring gear and the inner sun gear.

The shaft of the outer ring gear connects directly to the electric motor and (through the drive shaft) to the reduction gears and hence the front wheels.

The shaft of the sun gear drives the generator.

The use of one set of planetary gears to achieve two roles provides a significant saving in weight and space under the bonnet - compared with either a traditional automatic transmission or a belt and pulley type CVT.

There is no torque converter and hence no loss of energy through slippage in the driveline.

CVT - Back To The Future? Some industry leaders predict CVT could replace conventional automatic transmissions in many vehicle lines.

Audi and General Motors are known to have electronically controlled belt and pulley type CVTs under development.

The Audi system uses a special metal belt, made up of more than 1000 separate overlapping links, to counter the traditional CVT problem of belt stretch and/or breakage.

CVT has traditionally consisted of two cone-shaped pulleys, joined by a cloth or rubberised belt.

Continuously variable transmission was first used on the French Fouillaron car in 1900.

Dutch manufacturer DAF offered a CVT in the 1950s, under the name ~Variomatic~ gearbox.



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PRIUS MORE USER-FRIENDLY THAN CONVENTIONAL SMALL CAR


Toyota's Prius hybrid car is more user friendly than a conventional small car.
It has power-assisted steering, drives like an automatic and runs on regular 91 RON fuel.

The Toyota Hybrid System's epicyclic constantly variable transmission offers seamless ratio changes to suit driving conditions.

Prius requires no infrastructure change and no specialised driver training.

The transmission is designed to have the same calibration as a conventional automatic.

Prius also has automatic hill-start function.

It will therefore hold the vehicle in place while it is stationary in a hill-start situation and allow it to creep forward on a level road.

The ~creep~ function is designed for slow traffic situations.

There is no need to externally charge Prius' high-voltage battery.

The car generates its own electricity during normal operation.



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SOFTWARE BRINGS THS TO LIFE


Computer engineers and programmers are the unsung heroes of the Toyota Hybrid System.
Increasingly affordable computing power helped make the Toyota Hybrid System a reality.

Toyota Prius has 12 on-board computers, including one to control regenerative braking and another to control the high-voltage battery. An additional computer controls the optional DVD-based touch-screen satellite navigation system.

The chief engineer of Prius, Mr Toshihiro Oi, said the Toyota Hybrid System might not have been workable without such developments as the ~drive-by-wire~ electronic throttle.

Computing power provides the key to the constantly variable transmission (CVT) in the Toyota Hybrid System.

There is no torque converter and no pulleys - just a set of sun and planet gears that connect the engine, generator and electric motor.

The electric motor is in turn connected via a set of reduction gears to the final drive.

The THS computer controls the vehicle's speed by regulating the differential in revolutions between the petrol engine and the generator.



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TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM USES ADVANCED ELECTRICS


The Toyota Hybrid System uses advanced electrical components, designed to maximise operating and package efficiency.
Development work for Prius led to performance improvements, and reductions in size and weight of components such as the electric motor and HV (hybrid vehicle) battery.

THS Battery:

The Toyota Hybrid System battery marks a further advance in sealed nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) technology, which was originally developed for electric vehicles.

The battery offers three times the power output of EV batteries, coupled with improved sealing and durability, and reduced weight.

The Toyota Hybrid System ECU controls the generator and motor to ensure the battery maintains a constant charge - so there is no need for recharging from an outside source.

Electric Motor:

The system uses a compact, lightweight, high-output AC permanent magnet synchronous electric motor.

The 33kW electric motor provides a power boost for the petrol engine, ensuring smooth starts and responsive acceleration.

It delivers 350Nm of torque from zero to 400rpm.

In addition, the motor is part of the regenerative braking system. It converts the kinetic energy of the decelerating vehicle into electricity, for storage in the battery.

Permanent Magnet Generator:

The Toyota Hybrid System has a high-efficiency AC permanent magnet synchronous generator, to run the electric motor and charge the battery.

In addition, the THS system uses the generator to control the ratio of power distribution from the power-split device.

This is achieved by controlling the amount of electricity the generator produces and hence generator revolutions.

The generator also serves as a starter motor for the petrol engine.

Inverter/Converter:

The Toyota Hybrid System's inverter turns direct current from the battery into alternating current for the drive motor, and the converter converts alternating current from the generator and motor (in regenerative braking mode) into direct current for storage in the battery.

The inverter/converter circuitry features an intelligent power module for increased reliability.



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PRIUS PROJECT HAS TECHNOLOGY FLOW-ON


The Prius hybrid project has produced significant technological flow-on in the Toyota range.
Technology and innovations debuted when Prius was launched in Japan have flowed on to Toyota Echo, Celica and Tarago.

The five-seat Prius design introduced innovations in package efficiency, instrumentation, suspension and steering - in addition to its hybrid powertrain.

The Prius body, styled at Toyota's Calty studio in California, has a long wheelbase and short overhangs, to maximise the ratio of cabin space to overall length.

Its upright seating position provides greater ease of entry and exit. Centre instruments, initially developed for Prius, debuted in Australia on Toyota Echo.

The engines in the Echo range are virtually Otto Cycle versions of the Prius petrol engine.



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PRIUS INTERIOR SEATS FIVE


Prius' roomy interior can seat five adults in comfort.
Innovative features include a centrally positioned instrument panel.

The centrally located instruments increase active safety - reducing the time required to adjust eye focus between the road and the speedometer.

The combination meter includes digital display of vehicle speed, trip meter, shift lever position and warning information.

The meter has a non-glare surface that allows just 0.1 percent reflection, to minimise eye strain.

Prius' cockpit layout also includes a multi-information touch-screen display in the centre console.

The screen can display the flow of energy through the THS system and energy consumption, as well as audio status.

It is the touch-screen for Prius' optional DVD-based satellite navigation system.

Prius' has a pistol-grip type shift lever, with five positions - Park, Reverse, Neutral, Drive and Brake.

The car will drive like a traditional automatic in Drive or Brake setting.

The Brake setting provides engine braking for low speed hill descents. Prius has air conditioning as standard equipment.

There are two air conditioner settings - A/C and MAX.

The A/C setting is designed to optimise fuel economy, in heating or cooling mode.

The MAX setting provides increased cooling by overriding Prius' automatic petrol engine cut-off function.

Prius' front bucket seats were designed for the best combination of comfort and safety.

The front seats have tilt and slide adjustment.

The driver's seat also has two-way height adjustment.

The rear seat has three head restraints and three child restraint anchorage points.

Features include dual SRS airbags, tilt-adjustable power steering, power windows, digital clock and a number of storage locations.

Storage locations include door pockets, front seat-back pockets, centre console and a large glovebox.

The four-speaker audio system includes radio/cassette and a 6-CD in-dash multi-changer.

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PRIUS HAS UNIQUE STEERING SYSTEM


The Toyota Prius has unique electric motor power-assisted rack and pinion steering.
The electric-assisted steering system provides power assistance even when Prius' petrol engine is stopped.

It reduces engine load and hence fuel consumption, and does not require hydraulic pipes and power-steering fluid. Prius uses Nachlauf steering geometry, to minimise tyre scrub and hence save fuel.

Prius' rack and pinion has a variable gear ratio of 16.4 to 18.3:1, for a combination of crisp response and excellent steering feel.

The steering rack is mounted low (on the sub frame), to minimise bump steer.

The steering has 3.99 turns lock to lock, and a large wheel articulation angle to optimise turning circle.

Prius has a turning circle of 9.4 metres.



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PRIUS STYLED AT CALTY


Prius exterior was styled at Toyota's Calty Design Studio in California.
It has a wind-cheating drag co-efficient of 0.29.

Prius was designed to maximise interior space within a compact exterior, with a long wheelbase and short overhangs.

The front styling, with its slanted bonnet and large multi-reflector headlamps, maximises front vision.

The long cabin and the tall profile allows for maximum interior space, optimum headroom, and easy entry and exit.

Aerodynamic features include:

• fairings under the front bumper and ahead of the rear tyres

• a rear spoiler

• a flat underbody with optimised fuel-tank shape, a flat rear floor and raised rear underbody section.



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PRIUS OFFERS MAXIMUM PACKAGE EFFICIENCY


Toyota's Prius hybrid technology car offers medium-car levels of interior space in the overall length of a small car.
The key thought in Prius packaging design - ~optimum inside, minimum outside~ - was to provide comfort for five people while protecting the environment and conserving resources.

Prius' compact drivetrain design and short overhangs maximise cabin space within its overall length of 4315mm.

The short overhangs also contribute to improved handling.

Prius is 20mm longer than current Corolla Liftback, but has Camry class levels of interior space.

It has a wheelbase of 2550mm (120mm shorter than Camry) and a height of 1485mm (65mm more than Camry).

However, special attention to front wheel turning angle gives Prius a turning radius of just 4.7 metres.

Vehicle entry and exit has been optimised by the 1485mm roof height, which allows for higher door openings.

The front door hinges have been angled, thereby allowing the doors to open wider.

The seat hip point is 575mm, to minimise bending when entering or leaving the vehicle.

Prius' upright driving position also improves vision and aids city driving.





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PRIUS HAS SPECIALLY DEVELOPED SUSPENSION


Toyota's Prius sedan has specially developed long-travel suspension, for a balance of handling, ride comfort and low NVH.
Long-travel suspension also increases Prius' resistance to bottoming when laden.

Prius' suspension calibration was confirmed during extensive local testing.

Prius has a highly rigid body, which provides a stable platform for the suspension.

The Prius hybrid vehicle has a large footprint on the road for its overall dimensions.

It has a wheelbase of 2550mm, front track of 1475mm and rear track of 1480mm.

The front suspension is MacPherson strut, with wide-based L-shaped lower arms to maximise suspension rigidity and provide crisp steering response.

The MacPherson-strut damper units are gas-filled to provide consistent damper performance.

The stabiliser bar is attached to the lower L-arm, to reduce uncontrolled body roll.

Prius' semi-independent rear suspension is a trailing arm and axle beam type compact system which saves on weight and intrusion into the passenger and luggage compartments.

Benefits of the U shaped cross section beam system also include a built-in stabiliser bar and minimal camber change during cornering.

It consists of a U-shaped cross section axle beam and two long trailing arms.

Two coil springs and low-pressure gas-filled dampers control the rear suspension.

The stabiliser bar is housed within the U-shaped beam.

Prius' rear suspension has the added feature of toe control for increased driveability, stability and ride comfort.

The rear suspension has special toe-correcting bushings and anti-lift geometry - for increased stability under brakes.

Prius has 14 x 5.5JJ alloy wheels with 175/65 R14 Bridgestone 391 tyres.



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PRIUS IS QUIET INSIDE


Toyota's new Prius is whisper quiet inside.
Its petrol engine cuts seamlessly in and out of operation, as required.

Interior noise levels have been minimised by reducing noise at the source and through a comprehensive package of sound-reduction measures.

Sound reduction measures at the source include an aluminium cylinder block and fully balanced crankshaft.

Road noise has been minimised for increased comfort and to reduce driver fatigue.

Prius has a drag coefficient of 0.29 to reduce wind noise.

It has a highly rigid body and underbody for reduced noise and vibration.

The body design includes a substantial dash silencer panel.

Prius also has cross-connected reinforcements between the cowl and the dashboard, to add strength and rigidity and hence reduce vibration from the steering column.

Toyota has made extensive use of recycled materials to sound-proof elements of Prius.

Recycled material is used to make the six floor silencers.

Foamed urethane sponge, foamed seal material and felt are used in the pillars and roof rail channels to reduce wind noise and channel resonance.

The roof silencer pad covers the entire roof area.

A scroll-type compressor is used in the air conditioner, to minimise noise.



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PRIUS DESIGNED FOR SAFETY


The Toyota Prius was designed to ensure maximum safety for its high voltage battery.
The battery is fully sealed and mounted in the middle of the vehicle - as is the fuel tank for the petrol engine.

The HV battery is fused and has its own computer to control cooling.

All high-power cables are orange for easy identification and are shielded to minimise electro-magnetic radiation.

The power cables from the battery to the engine bay are routed under the cabin floor and are shielded to prevent stone damage.

A safety plug in the boot can be used to trip the battery fuses.

Prius has numerous warning labels on high-voltage components of the Toyota Hybrid System.

Toyota Australia has fully briefed emergency services in all States and issued a guide for emergency service personnel and tow-truck operators setting out special emergency handling procedures.



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PRIUS MEETS WORLD SAFETY STANDARDS


Toyota's Prius Hybrid technology car was designed to meet the world's toughest crash safety standards.
It has a strong body, with a reinforced cabin, dual SRS airbag and force-limiting front seatbelt pretensioners.

Prius has passed a 40 percent offset deformable barrier test at an impact speed of 64km/h - well in excess of the world test standard of 56km/h.

Prius has also met the European dynamic side impact test at 55km/hr rather than the regulatory requirement of 50km/hr.

GOA Safety Body:

Prius' body was developed using Toyota's Global Outstanding Assessment (or GOA) process.

In the GOA process, Toyota reviews current and anticipated safety standards and designs the vehicle to exceed those standards. Toyota also has its own strict in-house standards.

Prius has been tested to new European standards, and Japanese and US requirements, as well as Toyota's strict in-house goal of having the highest passive safety in class.

The body has crumple zones front and rear, and a high-integrity cabin section.

The crumple zones are designed to progressively absorb impact energy. The cabin is designed to provide survival space for the occupants, including head and foot space.

Finite Element Method analysis and numerous on-vehicle tests were used to achieve maximum side-impact integrity.

High-tensile steel is used extensively in body panel pressings.

Prius also has significant body reinforcement for both frontal and side impact protection.

Energy absorbing material has been incorporated into critical areas in the doors, to absorb any loads at those points.

Prius has head impact protection (HIP) measures, including soft upper interior sections on the roof side rails and inner B-pillar.

The four-way collapsible steering column has collapsible lower bracket, break-away bracket, energy absorbing plate and a contractile section.

The front seats are designed with careful positioning of the head restraint in relation to the seat back - to lessen possible whiplash injury.

The WIL (Whiplash Injury Lessening) seats were developed using a modified Euro III crash-test dummy.



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PRIUS' IMPRESSIVE ACTIVE SAFETY PACKAGE


Toyota's new Prius has an impressive active safety package.
Prius has a large footprint for its overall dimensions, a rigid suspension platform and long-travel suspension hardware.

Visibility has been optimised by Prius' upright seating position, large windscreen area and multi-reflector headlamps.

Prius' seats, seating position, long-travel suspension and low-interior noise contribute to reduced chance of driver fatigue.

The centrally located instruments reduce the time required to adjust eye position and focus from the road to the speedometer and back to the road.

Toyota Prius has electric power-assisted rack and pinion steering and four-wheel disc brakes.

Standard equipment includes ABS anti-skid brakes with electronic brake force distribution and energy-saving regenerative braking.



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TOYOTA PRIUS TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


Model Code: NHW11R-AEEEBQ

ENGINE:

Designation: 1NZ-FXE

Type: Front transverse-mounted all-alloy water-cooled in-line four-cylinder double overhead camshaft Atkinson Cycle petrol with four valves per cylinder, variable valve timing with intelligence, electronic engine management, electronic fuel injection and electronic direct ignition

Fuel: 91 RON Unleaded petrol

Displacement: 1497cm3

Bore x stroke: 75.0mm x 84.7mm

Compression ratio: 13.0:1

Maximum power: 53kW at 4500rpm

Maximum torque: 115Nm at 4200rpm

Valve mechanism: Two overhead camshafts and direct valve actuation, camshaft drive by toothed belt and scissors-gear, continuously variable inlet camshaft timing over a range of 43 degrees

Fuel system: Multi-point sequential electronic fuel injection into the inlet ports

MOTOR/ELECTRIC GENERATOR # 1

Type: High efficiency AC synchronous

MOTOR/ELECTRIC GENERATOR # 2

Designation: 1CM

Type: High-efficiency AC synchronous permanent magnet

Maximum power: 33kW from 1040 to 5600 rpm

Maximum torque: 350Nm from 0 to 400rpm

HIGH VOLTAGE BATTERY

Type: Sealed nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH)

Voltage: 274 volts

Modules: 38

Linkage: Series

Capacity: 6.5(3) Amp/hour

TRANSMISSION

Type: Electronically controlled continuously variable transmission (CVT), using planetary gear set and electronic control of generator speed

Final drive ratio: 3.905

CHASSIS

Steering: Electric power assisted rack and pinion, 3.99 turns lock to lock
Front suspension: MacPherson strut

Rear suspension: trailing armand axle beam with coil springs, double acting hydraulic dampers and a stabiliser bar

Wheels: 14x 5.5JJ alloy with 175/65 R14 Bridgestone 391 tyres

Brakes: Regenerative circuit and hydraulically controlled friction brakes, including ABS with electronic brake force distribution Front

type: 255mm x 25mm ventilated disc with twin-piston callipers

Rear type: 269mm x 9mm slid disc with twin-piston callipers

DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITIES

Overall length: 4315mm

Overall width: 1695mm

Overall height: 1485mm

Wheelbase: 2550mm

Front track: 1475mm

Rear track: 1480mm

Ground clearance: 140mm

Interior length: 1850mm

Interior width: 1400mm

Interior height: 1250mm

Kerb mass: 1250kg

Gross vehicle mass: 1645kg

Minimum turning radius: 4.7m (kerb to kerb)

Fuel efficiency: City cycle - 4.6 litres/100km. Highway Cycle - 4.2 litres/100km

Seating capacity: Five adults

Petrol tank: 50 litres


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TOYOTA PRIUS FEATURES


Air conditioning

- Auto/Climate control.

Rotary heater controls

External temperature reading

Power windows

- Front and rear

- Driver's auto down window

- Driver's auto up window

- Driver's side with anti-jam

- Time delay operation

Driver's vanity mirror

- With cover

Passenger's vanity mirror

- With cover

Power steering

Tilt adjustable steering wheel

Gear lever at dashboard

Power exterior mirrors

Left hand convex mirror

Interior Day/Night mirror

Intermittent windscreen wipers

- Variable intermittent

Rear window demister

Headlights on - Audible warning

Digital instrument display

Transmission gear indicator in dash

Trip meter

Low fuel warning lamp

Digital clock

Storage

Glovebox

Centre console

- Storage box

- Storage box with lid

Map pocket - Passenger seat

Map pocket - Driver's seat

Door pockets - Front

Front ashtray

Cigarette lighter - front

Cup holder

- Number of 4

- Moulded type

- Pull-out type

- In centre console

- With cover/s

Lighting

Interior dome light/s

- Number of dome lights 1

- Auto-on with central locking

- Auto-off with delay

Map lights

- Front seat map light/s

Luggage/cargo light

Sound System

AM/FM Radio

Electronic tune audio

Cassette player

CD socket/compatability

CD player

- CD changer in cabin

- 6 Disc CD player

Number of speakers 4

Aerial - Roof mounted

Aerial - Centre of roof

Vehicle Communications

DVD Satellite navigation system OPT

Safety

ACTIVE SAFETY FEATURES

Anti-skid brakes (ABS)

Electronic Brake force Distribution (EBD)

PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES

Global Outstanding Assesment body (GOA)

Toyota Safe-T-Cell

Side door anti-intrusion beams

Driver's SRS airbag

Front passenger SRS airbag

Driver's pre-tensioner seatbelt

Driver's forcelimiter seatbelt

Front passenger pre-tensioner seatbelt

Front passenger forcelimiter seatbelt

Driver's seatbelt warning lamp

Seatbelt buckle mounted to front seats

Height adjustable front seatbelts

2nd row/rear seat centre position lap/sash seatbelt

Collapsible steering column

High-mount rear stop lamp

CHILDREN'S SAFETY

2nd row/rear seat ALR outboard seatbelts for child seat/capsule

retention

2nd row/rear seat ALR centre position seatbelt for child seat/capsule retention

Door ajar warning

Security

Engine immobiliser

Central locking / Power door locks

- Remote central locking

Key in ignition / door lockout override

Remote boot/tailgate release

Door ajar warning

Remote fuel lid release

Fuel cap holder or tether

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